Volume 1, Issue 8, 2020
1. Comparative Study of Air Quality of West Terai, Nepal
Dhobi, S. H. Comparative Study of Air Quality of West Terai, Nepal. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 1–9
In this work, we are trying to compare the air quality of west terai of Nepal for this we consider five different place air stations. They are Lumbini, Dang, Chitwan, Nepalgunj, and Shurkhate air pollution center or station located in the western Terai of Nepal, etc. They consider data are taken from https://aqicn.org/forecast/, and the monthly averages data are listed in table 1, table 2, table 3, table 4, table 5 in methodology and the corresponding visualization of the data are shown in figure 2, figure 3, figure 4, figure 5, and figure 6. From this visulazation of the average data, the air pollutant is found for Lumbini is 18 minimum to 209 maxiumum, for Dang is 26 minimum to 119 maximum, for Chitwan is 42 minimum to 176 maximum, for Nepalgung 21 minimum to 178 , and for Shurkhate 73 minimum to 119 maximum. The air quality present between 2016 to now 2020 is not quite bad but unhealthy and moderate. This measurement is for PM2.5, similar expression and data visualization and interpretation are also compare for PM10 in below.
Keywords: Lumbini, Dang, Chitwan, Nepalgunj, Shurkhate, Western Terai, Nepal, PM2.5, PM10, etc.
2. Experimental Evidence for Neural Progenitor Cells in Adult Substantia Nigra
Adeloye, O. O., David, O. B., Olawuwo, S., Adeloye, R. K. Experimental Evidence for Neural Progenitor Cells in Adult Substantia Nigra. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 10–18
The substantia (“black substance” in Latin) is a long nucleus located in the midbrain but considered functionally a part of the basal ganglia because of its reciprocal connections with other brainstem nucleic. Degeneration of the pars compacta of the substantia nigra result in reduction of the availability of the neurotransmitter dopamine. This lack of dopaminergic innervation to the stratum results in disorders associated with hypokinesia or reduced motor movement. However, Parkinson disease is a result of reduced functioning substantia nigra. A few studies have shown that progenitor cells present in different areas of the adult central nervous system (CNS) but specificity (i.e. SNc ) whether such cells reside in the adult SNc and whether they have the potential to replace degenerating neurons effects is unknown. The purpose was to investigate a population of actively dividing progenitor cells in the adult SN, after removal from the SN, these progenitor cells immediately have the potential to differentiate into neurons. Transplantation of freshly isolated SN progenitor cells into the adult hippocampus showed that these cells also have a neuronal potential under in vivo conditions. These results suggest that progenitor cells reside in the adult SN and can give rise to new neurons when exposed to appropriate environmental signals.
Keywords: Parkinson's disease, neural progenitor cells, cell replacement, gliogenesis, transplantation, substantia nigra.
3. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Movement Disorders: A Review of Observational Study
Adeloye, O. O., David, O. B., Olawuwo, S., Adeloye, R. K. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Movement Disorders: A Review of Observational Study. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 10–18
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a painless non-invasive brain stimulation technique used in cortical function in healthy individuals, inter alia and the pathophysiology of movement disorders (Cantello et al, 2002). It has been using for the treatment of a large variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases. In this study, we describe the mechanism of TMS techniques and discuss the clinical uses of TMS as a potential diagnostic tool in movement disorders. We also illustrate the basic rationale on which the therapeutic use of transcranial magnetic stimulation is based in a patients with movement disorders.
Keywords: First Key word; Second Key word; Third Key word.
4. Impact of thermophilic aerobic pretreatment to the anaerobic digestion systems
Kim, J. Impact of thermophilic aerobic pretreatment to the anaerobic digestion systems. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 29–35
Aerobically pretreated sludge at a thermophilic temperature was digested in the following temperature phased anaerobic digestion system (TPAD) and single-stage mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digesters. Iron was added to the feed sludge to simulate an odor control at the field. A significant increase of volatile fatty acids and solids reduction were observed from the thermophilic aerobic pretreatment operated for 2.5 days retention time. Additional solids removal was also achieved in the subsequent anaerobic digesters resulting in 50% or greater volatile solids removal rate at a much shorter overall retention time of 14.5 days. The TPAD system removed the most % solids than single-stage thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion systems. However, biosolids from the single-stage mesophilic anaerobic digestion system were the most dewaterable and the least odorous after dewatering among three digestion systems. Excess iron did not suppress sulfur odor generation from the system with aerobic pretreatment.
Keywords: Thermophilic aerobic pretreatment, temperature phased anaerobic digestion, single-stage anaerobic digestion, enhanced digester performance, biosolids odor.
5. Dissemination of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Tourism Industry : Pros and Cons
Patwary, A. K, Chowdury, M. M., Mohamed, A. E., Azim, S. Dissemination of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Tourism Industry : Pros and Cons. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 36–42
In the global economy, tourism is one of the rapidly growing business in comparison with the challenges and opportunities of other industries which is also accounting for more than one-third of the overall worldwide services business. With the rise of globalization, the economy is boosting everywhere, and the tourism industry has become very competitive. Utilizing information and communication technologies in tourism and hospitality industry has tremendous importance in this competitive era. Therefore, this study aims to provide an overview by demonstrating the importance of ICT in the tourism industry. Although several factors might have a relationship with ICT and tourism industry, however, this study merely investigated the general facts without empirical investigations. This study followed the method of reviewing the papers and reports of previous studies. It is recommended for future studies to come out with either quantitative or qualitative approach of the study to explore specific contribution, which might add more knowledge and understanding.
Keywords: Information Communication Technologies (ICT); Tourism Industry; Hospitality Industry.
6. A Review of the Critical Factors Affecting the Implementation of Monitoring and Evaluation Systems in Projects
Owuor, O. J. A Review of the Critical Factors Affecting the Implementation of Monitoring and Evaluation Systems in Projects. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 43–47
While the functions of project managers have evolved over the years, it is apparent that good management structures are still being sought in the implementation of projects. Project managers are being challenged than ever before. Monitoring and evaluation system has therefore been incorporated in project management as a device for managing the challenges. However, its implementation has been marred with numerous challenges, which have resulted in: delays in project startups; delivery of shoddy services; increase in projects environmental and social costs; delays in achievement of project objectives; and lack of sustainability of projects. The purpose of this review was to determine from an empirical perspective the critical factors affecting the implementation of monitoring and evaluation systems in projects. The review was conducted through desk research. Critical factors that perhaps affect the implementation of monitoring and evaluation systems in projects were identified, disaggregated and entered into academic search engines and five relevant articles generated. The review has revealed: technical capacity; stakeholder involvement; budgetary allocation; management commitment; staff training; and scope of the project as the critical factors affecting the implementation of monitoring and evaluation systems in projects. The review recommended: stakeholder involvement, staff training, and resource enhancement to support the implementation of monitoring and evaluation systems. Additionally, the review recommends interrogation of government legislation and politics as potential factors which perhaps affect the implementation of monitoring and evaluation systems.
Keywords: technical capacity; stakeholder involvement; budgetary allocation; management commitment; staff training; scope of the project; and monitoring and evaluation systems.
7. Anatomy of Asset Pricing: Single-Factor, Multi-Factor, Arbitrage and Behavioural Asset Pricing Models
Magani, A. G, Magani, M. R. Anatomy of Asset Pricing: Single-Factor, Multi-Factor, Arbitrage and Behavioural Asset Pricing Models. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 48–54
This paper reviews the development of asset pricing from Bernoulli (1738) first account of decision making under uncertainty and other ancient contributions in finance literature to the contemporary multi-factor and behavioural advances in asset pricing. The paper presents the historical development of asset pricing and derivative valuation based on the ancient literature in economics and modern financial economics on risk-return trade-off, as well as the emergence of factor models, arbitrage and behavioural asset pricing. The paper is based on an empirical review of asset pricing models in account of the chronological development with emphasis on arbitrage, single factor, multifactor and behavioural models. Besides, development of major models of asset pricing literature in which equilibrium analysis, variance optimization and no-arbitrage arguments have been eminent are reviewed. Capital asset pricing model is analysed besides the multi-factor models of asset pricing which are presented chronologically. The review accounts for the gradual shift from emphasis on market environment, valuation of individual securities and derivatives during the ancient times to the contemporary methodologies for multi-period, multi-factor and behavioural valuation of diversified assets with diverse risk-return potentials. The paper also presents a critique of various facets of asset pricing dynamics from factor models, arbitrage and behavioural asset pricing in relation to investment decisions based on the risk-return trade-off. Various approaches to securities pricing and asset valuation that influence market microstructure and investment decisions are reviewed taking note of the factor models and behavioural perspectives that continue to ellicit the discourse in the theory and practice of asset pricing. In particular, scholarly works of researchers and critiques of the factor models which are applied to securities pricing and valuation including multi-factor and behavioural asset pricing dynamics are reviewed. Nonetheless, the review shows interminable criticisms and debate on the appropriate securities pricing considerations, approach and decision model. Whereas this review recommends adoption of dynamic secirities pricing approach based on market-specific factors, conditions and circumstances, innovation and research advances should seek to overcome the challenges and weakness associated with factor-based and behavioural asset pricing models.
Keywords: Asset Pricing; CAPM; ICAPM; CCAPM; Three-Factor Mode; Four-Factor Model; Five-Factor Model; Six-Factor Model; Behavioural Asset Pricing.
8. Exploring The Basic of The Malaria Burden For Eradication Strategies
Titilola, K. O, Rotimi, D. E, Arike, A. O, Abolanle, K. A. A. Exploring The Basic of The Malaria Burden For Eradication Strategies. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 55–61
Malaria infection is a public health problem of global concerns. Malaria is an endemic disease in major areas of Africa and some part of America and Asia. Typical symptoms of malaria include headaches, fever, vomiting, rigors, chills and tiredness while severe malaria could lead to seizures, coma, severe anaemia, respiratory distress, convulsions, hypoglycemia, yellow skin or death. Effective management of malaria begins with an accurate diagnosis of the disease. Identification of malaria parasites or antigens are used for malaria diagnosis. An understanding of the plasmodium’s metabolism could be explored to develop new therapeutic strategies. However, there were observable resistances noted in P. falciparum, which, continually threatens their efficacy and has necessitated the need new antimalarial combinations and the discovery, design and development of new drugs.
Keywords: Malaria; plasmodium; infection, endemic; antimalarial.
9. The Role of The Educational Supervisor in Developing the Teachers’ Leadership Abilities in The Northern Jordan Valley
Al-Youssef, R. M . H, Darawsheh , N. A. The Role of The Educational Supervisor in Developing the Teachers’ Leadership Abilities in The Northern Jordan Valley. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 62–77
The study aimed to identify the role of the educational supervisor in developing the teachers’ leadership abilities in the Northern Jordan Valley, Jordan. The researchers used the survey descriptive approach. The study sample consisted of (300) teachers. The questionnaire was used as a study tool after its reliability and validity were checked. The results of the study showed that the responses of the study sample on the role of the educational supervisor in developing the teachers’ leadership abilities in the northern Jordan Valley region came in a moderate degree and that there were no statistical differences attributed to gender variable. It also showed that there were differences attributable to the variables, educational qualification, and years of experience.
Keywords: Role, Educational supervisor, Leadership development.
10. Algebraic Topological Pattern of Electroencephalograph Signals During an Epileptic Seizure
Barja, A. M . A. Algebraic Topological Pattern of Electroencephalograph Signals During an Epileptic Seizure . International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 78–82
An electroencephalography (commonly referred to by its abbreviation EEG) is one of the helpful and favoured tools in diagnosing various brain disorders specially in epilepsy due its non-invasive characteristic and ability in providing wealthy information about brain functions in terms of electrical potentials. The result of EEG as a tool for evaluating epileptic seizure is often interpreted as a noise rather than an ordered pattern. EEG signals during seizure can be representative as a semigroup of square matrices and a group of square diagonal matrices under matrix multiplication. In this study, the main interest thing is to describe signals of EEG during an epileptic seizure (brainstorm) as an algebraic topological structure and to show that the structure contains ordered pattern, hence pattern of seizure. Furthermore, using this result, proper actions could be applied with greater precision on human epileptic seizure.
Keywords: EEG signals, Average Potential Difference, Topological Semigroup, Topological Group.
11. Perspectives on Gender Roles in Enhancing Food Security in Kenya’s Drylands
Ikutwa, C., Magani, G. Perspectives on Gender Roles in Enhancing Food Security in Kenya’s Drylands . International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 83–90
Gender roles are indispensable in improving quality of life, food production and addressing food and nutrition security issues. Sustainable agriculture and economic growth is undermined by limited appreciation of gender roles in implementation of strategies towards realization of food security. Notably, the input of women in food production and value addition often goes unnoticed and often remaining hidden because of societal hindrances. This review paper examines the contemporary perspectives on gender roles in enhancing food security in Kenya’s drylands especially before and during the CoVID-19 crisis to inform post-pandemic policy, strategy and action. The review justifies the need for gender mainstreaming in distribution and uptake of both subsistence and commercial roles in agricultural value chains towards enhancing food and nutrition security. However, overreliance on rainfall, poor agronomic practices and recurrent drought are reported to inhibit the realization of the full potential of sustainable agricultural production and consumption. This implies the need to promote gender mainstreaming in policy and decision making on food security and nutrition issues including; resource use and allocation, value addition to major food crops, adoption of sustainable agricultural practices and post-harvest strategies, empowerment of women through agricultural education, extension and linkage services and creation of awareness on opportunities and women’s rights in the food security value chains both during and post-CoVID-19 crisis period. It is, however, important to recognise women as effective agents and actors in relation to both climate change mitigation and adaptation as to avoid emphasising a misleading notion of women as a homogenous group of vulnerable victims within the development discourse.
Key words: Food security, Drylands, gender roles, empowerment of women, climate change.
12. The Relationship Between Environmental Factors, Technological Factors and The Adoption of ABC System in The Manufacturing and Services Sectors in Jordan
Albrrishi , S. S, Bardai , B. The Relationship Between Environmental Factors, Technological Factors and The Adoption of ABC System in The Manufacturing and Services Sectors in Jordan. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 91–99
The objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between environmental factors, technological factors and the adoption of ABC system in Jordanian manufacturing and services sectors. The study applies quantitative method using questionnaire survey research instrument. Questionnaire data were obtained from 205 samples comprising of Assistant Financial Manager. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to examine the relationship between environmental factors and technological factors and the adoption of ABC system. The final Structure model that uses maximum likelihood estimation analysis confirms a goodness of fit of the data. The findings from the testing of the hypotheses indicate a positive significant relationship between: environmental factors and the adoption of ABC system, technological characteristics and the adoption of ABC .The study concludes that environmental factors, technological factors, are positively related to ABC adoption as the models are collectively significant.
Keywords: ABC system, Environmental Factors, Technological Factors
13. The impacts of E-learning on the level of financial performance:An empirical study on Southern Queensland University
Shawawreh , F. M, Shawawreh, S. F. The impacts of E-learning on the level of financial performance:An empirical study on Southern Queensland University . International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 8 (2020) 100–111
This study aims to highlight the impact of using e-learning on financial performance in Australian universities / applied study at the University of South Queensland, where the university was selected for its economic and social importance in the area of Toowoomba. This study is focusing on comprehending the impact or e-learning tools (Communication networks, communication media, software, hardware) on financial performance (profitability, liquidity), as well as identifying the most important obstacles that affect the optimal application of this system. After analysing the data according to the SPSS (For Social Sciences Statistical .Package) program, the researcher found that there is a significant impact on the financial performance of e-learning, despite some challenges, the most important of which is the exceptional development of ICT.
Keywords: ABC system, Environmental Factors, Technological Factors.