Volume 1, Issue 4, 2020

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1. Title : Documentary Letter of Credit in Conventional and Islamic Banks in Jordan

Authors : Emad Mohammad Al-Amaren, Che Thalbi Bt Md. Ismail; Mohd Zakhiri bin Md. Nor; Rachma Indriyani

Abstract Letter of credit importance appears clearly as being a means of guarantee for both the buyer and the seller in international trade. The term letter of credit whether it Islamic or conventional is the most frequent used method of payment used by seller and buyer in their international sales contract. From this point the main question in this study: Are there any differences between the application of letter of credit under conventional and Islamic bank in Jordan? This study aim is to identify and compare the application of letter of credit under the Jordanian conventional bank practice and the Jordanian Islamic bank practice to find the similarity and the differences between the two practices. To answer the research question, the study has applied a descriptive analysis to examine the letter of credit concept under the Jordanian practice. The data is enriched with Banks official reports through field work methods. Further, this study has followed the detailed analytical method of the international rules and norms related to letter of credits No. 600, in addition to the use of some books of jurisprudence in this regard. This study found that there is no difference between differences between the application of letter of credit under conventional and Islamic bank in Jordan except in terms of name in the documentary credit process. Further, the study came out with a result that, the operation of Islamic letter of credit is very similar to the operations of conventional letter of credit but the difference is on the basic contract that corresponds with the sharia requirements. Islamic letter of credits does not differ from its conventional one. They have the same content, as the differences between the Islamic letter of credit and the conventional letter of credit is only in technical point, and that the case when you want to compare between wakalah letter of credit and the conventional letter of credit, they are similar to each other.

Keywords: letter of credit, trade finance, Islamic bank, conventional bank, Jordanian bank, differences, and similarity.

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2. Title : A Model to Convert Co2 into O2 with Photons

Authors : Saddam Husain Dhobi

Abstract: As the energy of UVs light is ranges from 3.10 to 12.4eV and the bond energy of carbon and oxygen in free carbon dioxide is 2.94eV. When the UVs ray incident on the surface of carbon dioxide molecules the energy of UVs rays sufficient to break the bond of Carbon and oxygen and hence in this way one can convert carbon dioxide into oxygen and carbon monoxide moreover, carbon and oxygen finally inside the chamber. The chamber of carbon dioxide is filled with carbon dioxide gas and on the internal part of the chamber UVs are set up as shown in the experiment and after fill the camber with the gases, and UVs ray tube is on for glowing or to producing the UVs ray. The UVs ray falls on the gas and break the bond to produce the carbon and oxygen. Therefore the number of carbon dioxide is reduced and in this way, we can reduce the number of carbon dioxide. Similarly, this system may give an idea to reduce other gases which are harmful and gases have high life expectation to decay can utilized for different purpose in daily life. This model is especially focusing on industrial areas and the sources which emitting huge amounts of Carbon dioxide and we can apply this system for small systems also. Hence in this way, we can convert or reduce carbon dioxide gas into oxygen and carbon with this model.

Keywords: UVs Rays, Carbon dioxide and Oxygen, Energy, Chamber of Carbon dioxide.

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3. Title : The Rule of Law and the Reality of the Judiciary during the Period of Palestinian Political Division

Authors : Ahmed M A Hamad; Haslinda binti Mohd. Anuar; Rohizan binti. Halim

Abstract: The Palestinian Basic Law of 2003 affirmed in Article (6) of it that the principle of the rule of law shall be the basis of government in Palestine. All governmental powers, agencies, institutions, and individuals shall be subject to the law. To enhance the implementation of this principle and ensure its application. The Palestinian legislator stipulated a set of principles related to public rights and freedoms and the reality of the judiciary. The principle of the rule of law is the most important legal guarantee to protect the rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals, as it constitutes in its essence a major guarantee for the protection of public rights and freedoms and the reality of the judiciary. In addition, the judicial authority is important, and it is a guarantee of respect for human rights and protection of the interests of individuals, and it is the body entrusted with it to ensure the rule of law. The independence of the judiciary is the basis of justice, and the complete independence of the judiciary means that no political or administrative authority is permitted to interfere in any act of the judiciary, nor that judges be subject to anything except their conscience, and they have no authority other than the law. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to examine the manifestations of the absence of the rule of law, the infringement of public rights and freedoms, have formed the most prominent problems facing Palestinian society, and this phenomenon ranged between expansion and decline, after the Palestinian political division, according to the developments of the Palestinian national reconciliation and its implications. After the Hamas government took control of the Gaza Strip, in contrast, the Palestinian President appointed a corresponding government in the West Bank, which resulted to two governments, one in the West Bank and the other in the Gaza Strip, which contributed largely to the absence of the rule of law, and a serious deterioration in achieving the principle of the independence of the judiciary. Moreover, this article has explained the impact of the Palestinian political division over the principle of the rule of law and the independence of the judiciary. In order to achieve the objective of this paper, the socio-legal research using the qualitative approach was engaged. This study found that the Palestinian political division led to the absence of the application of the principle of the rule of law and the independence of the judiciary.

Keywords: Principle rule of law, the reality of the judiciary, Period of Palestinian Political Division, Independence of the judiciary.

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4. Title :Evaluating The Performance Efficiency of Health Services Institution in Jordan

Authors : Maree Mohammad Alzghoul, Norshahrizan Nordin, Tunku Salha Tunku Ahmad, Mohammad Iqbal Omar

Abstract: This study aims to assess the efficiency of the performance of Jordanian government hospitals from the viewpoint of the human resource (managers and employees), and the study community consists of all hospitals affiliated to the Ministry of Health, and there are 32 hospitals distributed in each of the In five hospitals in the Kingdom, a questionnaire was used as the main data collection tool for this study in line with the aims and questions of the study. 300 questionnaires were distributed to the study sample, of which approximately 90% of the total questionnaires were retrieved, and accounting methods were used, as well as the analysis and analysis of the variance of the individual hypothesis test. The most important of which are: The study found many of the recommendations the most important need to focus senior management in health sectors on the process of applying to evaluate the efficiency of to improve the system of hospitals process and guide the process of decision-making in Jordanian hospitals. The study reached many results: Governmental hospitals provide efficient health and medical services, with the exception of some answers, from the viewpoint of hospital staff, taking into account that this is taken into account. In light of the results of the study, the researcher recommends many matters related to indicators for evaluating the efficiency of hospitals: The hospital administration’s commitment to providing health and medical services to the patient in the time and effort specified by the number of the hospital, maintaining medical records and confidentiality, providing patient waiting rooms and appropriate sessions, and providing incentives and Personnel training courses.

Keywords: Efficiency, Performance, Hospitals, and Jordan.

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5. Title : Reconciliation between the concept of right of self-defence and use of force: an analysis of Article 51 of the UN Charter and Carroline Correspondence

Authors : Muhammed Asaduszzaman Nur

Abstract: Article 2 paragraph 4 of the United Nations Charter proclaims all member states shall refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state. On the other hand Article 51 authorizes a state to recourse to use of force for self-defense individually or collectively if an armed attack occurs against it until the Security Council takes measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. In customary international law use of force for self-defence is regulated by necessity and proportionality principles which were authoritatively expressed in Carroline correspondence. These two principals are affirmed by the International Court of Justice in different judgments. The essay will examine how the right of self-defence is regulated under the Charter provisions and the Caroline correspondence and what does the armed attack requirement under Article 51 mean with case references. The essay will examine how the right of self-defence is regulated under the Charter provisions and the Caroline correspondence and how to reconcile them to justify to the use of force in exercise of right of self-defence.

Keywords: use of force, self-defence, territorial integrity or political independence, Carroline correspondence, armed attack, necessity and proportionality principles.

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6. A Study on Member's Participation and Satisfaction Level of Chithode Primary Agricultural Cooperative Credit Society Limited

Authors : Maharani, and Vellaichamy

Abstract: The agricultural sector of India has grown up since independence but after green revaluation in agricultural got an express speed for its development. RBI stared special department for the development and growth of Cooperatives Credit Societies. The K.11279, Chithode Primary Agricultural Cooperative Credit Society was registered and started its function from 15.12.1977. The study done with objective that to study the participation and satisfaction level of members in Chithode Primary Agricultural Cooperative Credit Society Limited and to summarize the findings of the study and offer suitable suggestions for the improvement of Chithode Primary Agricultural Cooperative Credit Society Limited. The present study is based on primary data which is analyzed with the help of tabulation and simple percentage. The primary data collected using questionnaire. Members’ satisfaction level is the important tools to lead the activities of primary agricultural cooperative credit society. The satisfaction level of members are analysed carefully with the responses provided by this members. The members responses are spread over from strongly agree to strongly disagree. It concludes that the society try to serve as it can and members expecting more services from the society.

Key words: Members’ Participation, Satisfaction, PACCS

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7. A Triangulation Analysis of Operational Performance and Profitability of Microfinance Institution in Amhara Region-Ethiopia

Authors : Uvaneswaran S.M, and Mohammed Adem

Abstract: The microfinance institutions(MFI) in Ethiopia play a significant role in alleviating poverty in the areas where the society has no or limited access to financial service provisions. There are 39 micro financing institutions serving the poor in Ethiopia and act as an effective anti-poverty strategy all over the country. This paper was attempted to cover two MFI’s operating performance on profitability in Amhara region by taking 2015 to 2019 as financial period limits to accomplish the objective. Mixed method design was adopted and the financial statement of the organization were used to measure the operational and profitability performance and also triangulate with secondary data that is collected using interview from Managers, employees of MFI’s and also Focus group discussion. Descriptive statistics and partial correlation are used to analyze the data. The outcomes highlight the association between operating variables and profitability of MFI’s will helps to offer worthwhile financial product in order to serve better to downtrodden community.

Keywords: Micro Finance Institutions, operational performance, profitability, triangulate data, Key informants, Focus Group Discussion

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8. Determination and Umkm Behavior of Sharia Banks

Authors : Dede Aji Mardani

Abstract: In Indonesia, the development of Sharia Banks has not moved significantly. In fact, the total number of customers is only 8.26% of the total population of Indonesia. including in Tawang Subdistrict, education and litersion became the dominance in this problem . T Objective of this study measures the extent to which the preferences of the community the District Tawang against Islamic Bank, and also the preference of what factors most extensive influence on the Islamic Bank. With quantitative methods. The results of this study indicate that the preference of the people of Tawang District Sharia banks can be influenced by 5 characteristics, including personal, social, economic, psychological, and cultural characteristics. and, the most dominant preference factor is based on psychological characteristics, in the form of public perception that Islamic banks are Islamic banks .

Keywords: Preferences, Islamic Banks, Savings

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9. Does Board Characteristics Enhance Firm Performance? Evidence from Palestinian Listed Companies

Authors : Mohammed W. A. Saleh, and Md. Aminul Islam

Abstract: This study examines the effects of board characteristics and firm performance. The board characteristics are the board gender diversity, the board size, frequency of meetings held during a year by the board of directors and the board financial knowledge.

Design/methodology/approach – Based on panel data of 150 observations from non-financial firms listed on the Palestine Security Exchange (PSE) during the period from 2011 to 2016. This study utilises panel data to examine the effect of the predictors on firm performance. The analysis was repeated after using Random-effect and Fixed-effect analysis to make sure that the main results are robust and accurate.

Findings – The results show that the larger the board size the better firm's performance. Moreover, the frequency of meetings is found to be positively associated with firm performance. Likewise, the board financial knowledge has a positive relationship with firm performance. However, the result does not find any relationship between the board gender and firm performance. Overall, the results suggest that board's effectiveness tend to improve firms' performance. Originality/value – The study is timely given that the board of directors play pivotal roles in determining the performance in term of monitoring and controlling. The prior research in Palestine has not investigated the effect of board gender diversity. As such, Palestine has not established a legal quota of minimum female representation on boards, and because of it, the country has weak women’s representation among firms. It therefore becomes a necessity to examine the influence of board gender diversity on the financial performance of listed firms in Palestine.

Keywords: Board Meeting; Board Financial Knowledge; Firm Performance

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10. Analytics of Antimony in Natural Water of Nanoparticle Platinum Electrode by Application Square Wave Voltammetry

Authors : Ahmad Khalaf Alkhawaldeh

Abstract: This study on the production of a modern natural water electrochemical antimony (II) test include the use of platinum electrode electrodes. Antimony (II) was pre-concentrated on the modified electrode surface and adsorbed to the surface, oxidizing at E = -680 mV. Compared to the platinum electrode, the platinum nanoelectrode exhibited superior performance and, unexpectedly, received a higher electrochemical response. After 25 min of accumulation, time the best-defined anodic peak was obtained with 0.2 mol L-1 KNO3 pH 5.0. Using these parameters, the L-1 Sb 2 + calibration plot was linear over range 1 = 10−8 to 5x10−6 mol. The precision was tested by carrying out eight replicate measurements at a concentration of 2.5x10−5 mol. L-1; the variance coefficient was 2.9%. The method was applied to analytic determination in water samples from the river. Other metal ion attack on Sb's (II) voltammetric response has been studied. In the SEM image, the nanoparticle electrode was clearly observed and characterized by X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Antimony, Platinum Electrode, Square Wave Voltammetry.

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11. Identifying the ways of delivery performance enhancements in Sri Lankan E commerce Logistics sector with special reference to the Cash On Delivery (COD) method: An Integrative Review

Authors : Navodika Karunarathna

Abstract - With the prompt growth of sophisticated technological environment, E-Commerce distribution services in Sri Lanka have flourished tremendously. Most logistics and courier companies in Sri Lanka have developed new platforms to step into the modern e-commerce trends to meet the dynamic demands. However, due to the lack of study on real procedures of last mile (LM) delivery has triggered bad reputations and highly dissatisfied customers around the country. Cash on delivery (COD) has been a foremost problem in Sri Lanka's E-commerce delivery systems, hence cash collection and customer rejection rates are much higher, contributing to the cause of both e-commerce vendors and couriers rising costs. Sri Lankan Logistics and Courier companies are still lacking the efficiency; compared to the high standards E commerce industry has set in the world. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the solutions and strategies for performance enhancements of E-Commerce deliveries with special reference to CODs in order to overcome the associated issues and challenges. This scrutiny has been conducted using an integrative review approach and the literature published in relation to Sri Lankan and Global E-commerce deliveries and COD Services were reviewed. Through the effective categorization and integrative analysis of literature, issues and challenges that are being faced by the ecommerce logistics companies and the solutions and strategies for performance enhancements of ecommerce deliveries were identified in both global and local context. Finally a theoretical framework on COD Services which will be effective to Sri Lankan E commerce Logistics sector was suggested.

Keywords: E commerce Logistics, Cash On Delivery (COD), Delivery Performance

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12. Determination of Fungicide Spray Frequency for the Management of Septoria Tritici Blotch (Septoria tritici) of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

Authors :Yitagesu Tadesse, and Belachew Bekele

Abstract: Septoria tritici blotch (STB) is an economically important foliar disease in the major wheat-growing areas of Ethiopia. The current research was conducted to determine the impact of wheat varieties and fungicide spray frequency on disease development and wheat yield. The effect of bread wheat varieties and fungicides spray frequency on STB development, wheat yield was evaluated at Holleta in a factorial field experiment involving three bread wheat varieties and five fungicide spray frequency. Variety Kekeba had the highest AUDPC (4019) value followed by Madawalabu (3854) and Alidoro (2077) varieties. STB incidence and severity were significantly reduced by the application of fungicides across varieties but fungicide-variety combinations had differential effects on disease development. Wheat grain yield were the lowest from unsprayed plots regardless of variety. Alidoro variety treated with five times Tilt fungicide spray produced the highest yield (6.67t/ha). The highest (3013%) and lowest (0%) marginal rate of return were obtained from Madawalabu variety two time fungicide spray and from all unsprayed fields, respectively. The present findings confirmed the importance of STB in Ethiopia and the role fungicides frequency play in managing the disease on partially resistant varieties.

Key Words: AUDPC, Bread wheat, Cost-benefit analysis, STB, Spray Frequency, Tilt.

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13. An Information on the Synchrony of Social Determinants: Influence on Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

Authors :Eugene, E. J


Social, cultural, economic, and biological factors are widely known critical determinants of well-being, and acts across the life course. Biological outcomes are considered as a sequel of exposure in social stratifications, which can be measured at some extent of time. Clinicians and health authorities, who compile these strategies to enhance health and reduce inequalities, must be aware of the societal impact, and not rely on individuals’ ability, which vary according to social circumstances and events, imposing social determinants approach to assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. This method would address a wide variation in the incidence, morbidity and mortality across the spectrum of associated clinical conditions.

Key words: Social determinants, Synchrony, Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.