Volume 1, Issue 9, 2020
1. Students’ Beliefs about Language Learning and Learning Strategies in Relation to Their English Learning Achievement
Hassuna B. Ali Krayem. Students’ Beliefs about Language Learning and Learning Strategies in Relation to Their English Learning Achievement. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 9 (2020) 1–9
The study aimed at investigating the beliefs of Non-English-Departmental University Students about language learning and language learning strategies use and the correlation between these variables and the students’ academic achievement. For this purpose, 80 first semester university students participated in this study. The participants were homogeneous regarding their age and gender. Data were collected during regular classes via two questionnaires; the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) questionnaire (Horwitz, 1988) and the Strategy-Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) developed by R. Oxford (1990). Descriptive and correlation statistics for quantitative data were applied in this research. The students’ beliefs about motivation were the most beliefs held by the students (M=3.61) followed by the Learning Preference (M=3.51), Formal Learning (M=3.26), Self-efficacy (M=2.74). The most preferred strategy used by the students was meta-cognitive (M=3.78) followed by cognitive (M=3.69), memory (M=3.62), affective (M=3.44), compensation (M=2.83). Whereas the least preferred strategies were social strategies (M=2.66. The findings revealed a positive relationship between strategy use and language learning beliefs. The results also revealed that the beliefs learners have on their own language learning process affect their learning achievement. Moreover, the results showed that Libyan students use varieties of language learning strategies. However, they showed some inconsistency regarding the preference of using certain types of strategies more than others. The result showed a high level of coefficient (.810). The findings of the current study suggest that teachers should be aware of learners’ beliefs about language learning in order to assist less successful language learners to become successful.
Keywords: language learning strategies (SILL), Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI).
2. The Effect of Audit Quality on the Share Prices in Amman Stock Exchange
Almashaqbeh, M., Islam, Md. A., Bakar, R., Ghazalat , A. The Effect of Audit Quality on the Share Prices in Amman Stock Exchange. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 9 (2020) 10–22
It is assumed that a higher quality of auditing reduces incentives for managerial opportunism, thereby increases investor confidence in accounting information, which in turn positively affects share prices. The aim of this study is to contribute to the literature by exploring the effects of audit quality on stock prices in Jordan. This study primarily aims to investigate the impact of audit firm size, audit tenure and audit fees on the stock prices in Jordan during the period (2010 to 2018). The required data were gathered from the annual report of 195 listed companies. This study use of a descriptive and correlational research plan using panel data on (95) companies with (855) observations when analyzing the data. Market value are the dependent variable used in this study by market price per share at year-end and independent variables consist of audit firm size, audit tenure and audit fees and control variables (firm size, firm age). Based on the results of the panel data, the fixed-effect model was used to investigate the impact of the audit quality on share prices. The study found that the audit quality has a significant impact on the share prices in the Amman Stock Exchange, and that the size of the audit company (AFS), the duration of the audit (AT), and the audit fee (AFE) together account for 14.28 percent of the variations in share prices. Whereas the (AFS) has a positive effect on those companies' share prices, the (AFE) effect is negative. On the other hand, (AT) has not significant effect on the share prices. Therefore, there is insufficient evidence that the audit period has an impact on stock prices. This study helps investors and managers get an insight to the nature of audit quality, and are it probable for companies’ audit quality to effect on the share prices.
Keywords: Share Prices; Audit Quality; Audit Firm Size; Audit Tenure; Audit Fees.
3. The Effect of Ownership Structure on share Prices in Amman Stock Exchange
Almashaqbeh, M., Islam, Md. A., Bakar, R. The Effect of Ownership Structure on share Prices in Amman Stock Exchange. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 9 (2020) 23–36
The owners of the company play important role in the firm performance. Owners of the firm can be divided into several groups (types of ownership structures). And, it has been well-known that type of ownership has different impact on the share prices. Consequently, the aim of this study is to contribute to literature by investigating the relationship between the ownership structure and the share prices of companies in a developing country such as Jordan. This study primarily aims to define and examine the impact of foreign ownership, institutional ownership and ownership concentration on the share prices of Jordanian companies listed on ASE in Jordan for the period 2010 to 2018. The required data were gathered from the annual report of 195 listed companies. This study use of a descriptive and correlational research plan using panel data on (95) companies with (855) observations when analyzing the data. Market value are the dependent variable used in this study by market price per share at year-end and independent variables consist of foreign ownership, institutional ownership and concentration of ownership and control variables (size of the company, age of the company). Based on the results of the panel data, the fixed-effect model was used to investigate the impact of the ownership structure on share prices. The study found that the ownership structure has a significan impact on the share prices of the Jordanian companies listed on ASE and that foreign ownership (FORE), institutional ownership (INST), and ownership concentration (CONC) together account for 12.92 percent of the variations in share prices. Whereas the (FORE) has a positive effect on those companies' share prices, the (INST) effect is negative. On the other hand, (CONC) has no significant effect on the share prices. So, there is insufficient evidence that ownership concentration has an effect on share prices. This research helps managers and investors give an insight into the nature of the ownership structure on the Amman Stock Exchange, and whether corporate ownership structure are likely to effect on stock prices in Amman Stock Exchange.
Keywords: Share Prices; Ownership Structure; Foreign Ownership; Institutional Ownership; Concentration of Ownership.
4. Critical Discourse Analysis of the Nigerian President’s Speech at the 73rd Session of the UN General Assembly
Ibrahim, S. D., Al-thunaibat, M. M. Critical Discourse Analysis of the Nigerian President’s Speech at the 73rd Session of the UN General Assembly. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 9 (2020) 37–44
Inspired by Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) perspective, this paper examines a spoken political discourse delivered by the Nigerian President, Muhammad Buhari, at the 73rd session of the United Nations (UN) General Assembly. Specifically, it seeks to achieve the following objectives: (a) to explain how the text achieves its coherence and cohesiveness (b) to examine the foregrounding information (c) to examine the background information. The speech for this qualitative descriptive study was downloaded from the internet through Google Search Engine and later transcribed. The analysis of the textual cohesion and cohesiveness is based on Halliday and Hasan’s (1976) Cohesion Theory. On the other hand, Huckin’s model of Critical Discourse Analysis is used to examine the foregrounding and background information. The analysis shows that the President emphasizes on three global issues, namely, (a) global crisis, conflict, war and threats to peace, (b) migration, and (c) corruption. It also shows how domestic issues were left out by him. The analysis further reveals how the President makes the speech cohesive and coherence using the reference marker “we”. The implication of this studies that CDAcan serve as an in-depth technique that exposes the implied and left out ideologies in political speeches. Through the CDA technique, this paper has also brought to light the main messages of President Muhammad Buhari’s speech.
Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, cohesion, coherence, foregrounding, background.
5. A MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF JAAR LANGUAGE’S COUNTING SYSTEM: A LINGUISTIC-BASED APPROACH
Ibrahim, S. D., Al-thunaibat, M. M. A MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF JAAR LANGUAGE’S COUNTING SYSTEM: A LINGUISTIC-BASED APPROACH. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 9 (2020) 45–49
This paper examines Jaar language’s counting system from a morphological perspective. It seeks to achieve the following objectives: to identify the base in which Jaar language’s counting system is organized and to identify the morphological processes that operate in Jaar language’s counting system. The data were collected through the object-counting task proposed by Miller et al (1995) and the words that represent Jaar language’s decimal 1-20 were purposely selected. The analysis was framed using a linguistic-based approach to morphological analysis. In response to the research objectives, the result shows that Jaar is a base-10 language. It also shows that compounding is the only morphological process that operates in the Jaar language’s counting system. This analysis implies that Jaar been a local language with a limited number of speakers can have documentation to avoid extinction.
Keywords: Jaar language, counting system, morphology.
6. An Introduction to the Legal Research Method: To Clear the Blurred Image on How Students Understand the Method of the Legal Science Research
Al Amaren, E. M., Hamad, A. M., Al Mashhour, O. F., Al Mashni, M. I. An Introduction to the Legal Research Method: To Clear the Blurred Image on How Students Understand the Method of the Legal Science Research. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 9 (2020) 50–55
Scientific research is one of the basic and main criteria to measure the extent of the country’s development, by considering it the primary engine of development. On the other hand, the methodology considers as the backbone of scientific research itself, there is no scientific research without an approach that deals with the problem of the study and determines its dimensions, aspects and causes. From researchers point of view, it is appropriate for legal studies - articles and books- to educate students how to understand the technical methodologies of law science and to engage them in how workers in the legal fields -lawyers and judges and legislative draft- think. This study aims to explore the legal research method using a descriptive analysis. The data collection was through library research. The library research was conducted to seek relevant information by collecting secondary data and valid info that can assist researcher answer the research question. All collected data has been analyzed using doctrinal method. In addition, data collection has been gathered through library research in public and private universities in Jordan and Malaysia. The secondary resources from which data will be collected are mainly include textbooks and journal articles by scholars to constitute the legal basis of this work by critically analyzing and comparing the various opinions expressed in these materials. The objectives of the study are to clear the blurred image on how students, understand the method of the legal science research. One of the most important results of the study, is that the legal approach used for each study differs from the other, because what governs the choice of methodology in legal sciences is the problem of study, so the researcher must estimate what is the correct methodology that can be followed from the subject of the study only.
Keyword: Scientific Research, Methodology, Legal Science Research, Doctrinal, Qualitative.
7. The effects of export earnings instability on the economic growth of Ethiopia
Mohammed, Y. The effects of export earnings instability on the economic growth of Ethiopia. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 9 (2020) 56–66
The study is held to examine the extent of export earnings instability and its impact on the economic growth of Ethiopia in the period from 1970/71 to 2011/12. The instability in export earnings that results from dependence on a few primary commodities export leads the country to uncertainty or shortage of foreign exchange earnings. Using the augmented neoclassical production function by incorporating export instability and adopting cointegration and/or error correction model technique, it was found that the export earnings instabilities negatively affect the economic growth of Ethiopia both in the short run and in the long run. Though the sign in the long and short run is the same, the significance of the coefficient of the short run is less than that of the long-run implying instability retards the economic growth more in the long run than the short run. As a measure of fluctuation in the export earnings, the deviation of actual export from exponential trending is used. The possible area of intervention is that trade policies should be consistent with the macroeconomic stabilization system. Thus to mitigate the adverse effect of export instability on the growth, associated with commodity concentration, there has to be a policy shift to diversify the country's exports to include non-traditional exports in which their earnings do not similarly vary with major export commodities earnings. And precautionary saving and building up of foreign exchange at some level is essential to smooth the short-run impact. These measures are expected to cause in a significant result in the growth process
Key Words: Diversification, Economic Growth, Error correction model, Exponential trend, Instability, production function, co-integration.
8. An empirical assessment of outsourcing accounting services in SMEs
Bello, D. An empirical assessment of outsourcing accounting services in SMEs. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 9 (2020) 67–80
This paper intends to appraise the extent of outsourcing accounting services in sampled SMEs in relation to a theoretical framework (RBV) derived from the literature. The study uses descriptive statistics, variance analysis, component matrix, skewness and correlation analysis using SPSS to analyze the survey data generated. It was found that financing opportunities, cost reduction and focus on core businesses are the major motivations for SMEs to outsource. From the analysis, purchasing outsourcing has the biggest correlation coefficients with short-term contract while total outsourcing has a significant correlation coefficient with long-term contract at the level of α=0.05. Consistent with other studies, it is also found here that local accounting vendors with great reputation seem to be the main criteria for selecting accounting service providers. Conversely, outsourcing satisfaction was found to be generally low. The most important benefits of outsourcing are that financing opportunities, cost reduction and focus on core businesses and improving service quality, whereas the main setbacks is the fear of commercial secrets disclosure and increased dependency on vendors. Originality is on financing opportunities.
Key words: outsourcing; SMEs; benefits; survey; accounting.
9. The Significance of Capitalisation Requirement During Entry of Foreign Investments in Bangladesh
Hossain, M. B., Yeon, A. L., Abd. Aziz, A. S. The Significance of Capitalisation Requirement During Entry of Foreign Investments in Bangladesh. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 9 (2020) 81–87
The primary purpose of economic globalisation is the economic development of the developing and least-developed countries as well as to facilitate benefits of the home states. Bangladesh foreign investment laws and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) mainly protects foreign investors, however, neither of them has any specific provision regarding capitalisation requirements during entry of foreign investments. This paper will discuss the negative impact of FDI in Bangladesh due to lack of capitalisation requirement provision, and then will highlight the significance of enacting it into the FDI laws or BITs. This paper will address three questions: (a) why the foreign investors should be required to fulfil capitalisation obligation during the entry of FDI in Bangladesh? (b) to what extent the existing laws, policies, BITs or TIPs of Bangladesh are compatible in relation to the capitalisation requirement? (c) what measures could be taken into consideration to overcome the problems? Using qualitative research method, the authors will critically analyse the existing FDI governing laws, policies, BITs and TIPs of Bangladesh in order to explore whether there is any provision of fulfilling capitalisation requirements by the foreign investors. The authors will also use comparative method to analyse FDI laws and BITs of different jurisdictions in relation to capitalisation requirement to justify of enacting specific regulation by Bangladesh. The findings of this study will show that neither the existing laws nor the BITs (or TIPs) has any specific provision of fulfilling capitalisation requirements. Based on the findings, this study will recommend that the government of Bangladesh should consider this important factor, and require foreign investors to fulfil the minimum capitalisation requirement as an entry condition, either through amending the existing laws or through the BITs and TIPs.
Keywords: Bilateral investment treaties, pre-entry stage, capitalisation requirement, foreign direct investment, Bangladesh.
10. An Advance Study of COVID-19 Pandemic Rise & Impacts on the Indian Population
Malhi , R., Malhi, M. An Advance Study of COVID-19 Pandemic Rise & Impacts on the Indian Population. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 9 (2020) 88–94
The aim of this research paper is to raise awareness about the recent outbreak COVID-19 in India and has taken necessary actions to control the spread of COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered an urgent need to contribute to the fight against an immense threat to the human population. It has affected everyone’s daily lives. India is now the third country in the world to have more than a million confirmed Covid-19 cases. As of May 8th, 2020, in India, 56,342 positive cases have been reported. India, with a population of more than 1.34 billion—the second largest population in the world—will have difficulty in controlling the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 among its population. Multiple strategies would be highly necessary to handle the current outbreak; these include computational modeling, statistical tools, and quantitative analyses to control the spread as well as the rapid development of a new treatment. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India has raised awareness about the recent outbreak and has taken necessary actions to control the spread of COVID-19. The central and state governments are taking several measures and formulating several wartime protocols to achieve this goal. Moreover, the Indian government implemented a 55-days lockdown throughout the country that started on March 25th, 2020, to reduce the transmission of the virus. This outbreak is inextricably linked to the economy of the nation, as it has dramatically impeded industrial sectors because people worldwide are currently cautious about engaging in business in the affected regions.
Keywords: Coronavirus; COVID-19; Pandemic; Social Distancing; Online Shopping; E-commerce; Digital Sales; Unplanned pregnancies; lockdown; Digital Marketing.
11. Integrating Soft Skills in EFL Teacher Education
Salih , S. A. Integrating Soft Skills in EFL Teacher Education. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 1 No 9 (2020) 95–110
Developing soft skills has become as necessary as hard skills for 21st century EFL teachers. This study discusses the integration of soft skills in EFL teacher education in Libyan universities through investigating the views of 79 EFL postgraduate students about their training and experience with these skills . Soft skills in this study refer to non-academic generic skills such as communication, critical thinking and problem solving, team work, life-long learning and information management, ethics and professional morals, and leadership. The data of this study was collected through a close-ended questionnaire sent via facebook messenger. The findings revealed the lack of integrating most of these skills in the curriculum of the English departments in Libyan universities. Education authorities should be aware about the importance teaching EFL students soft skills for better preparation for workplace. Some integration models have been offered .
Keywords: Soft Skills-Integration-EFL Teacher Education.