Volume 4, Issue 1, 2023 

1. Thermal and Sound Insulating Materials in Building   


Energy is considered one of the biggest challenges facing the world economy due to the lack of conventional energy sources of crude oil and natural gas used in energy generation. The use of thermal and sound insulation materials in a buildings construction is one of the ways to reduce energy consumption. Therefore, this study addresses the importance of using thermal insulation materials in building envelopes to reduce energy loss as a result of heating and cooling conditions, with a reduction of sound transition for a more comfortable living environment. The heat transfer through conduction was calculated for the building, with and without thermal insulation, by using three common insulation materials: Rock wool, Extended Polystyrene, and Polyurethane. The selection of these materials depends on availability in the market, cost of implementation, and the coefficient of thermal conductivity. The results showed that the Rock wool thermal insulating efficiency is almost the same as the other two materials, which reduces the heat transfer by 74.63% on the exterior walls, 32.53% on the ground floor, and 64.97% in the roof, it cost 3,876,689 IQD and reduce the electricity bill by saving 681,914 IQD per year with a payback period of 5.69 years, it also reduces CO2 emission by 64.7% and increases noise reduction of the exterior walls from 59dB to 70dB.  


Keywords:  Thermal and Sound Insulating Materials, Thermal conductivity, Thermal diffusivity,  Sound intensity absorbed, Bulding insulation. 

2. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Different Types of De-emulsifier in Crude Oil 


     For many years, oilfield researchers have been looking into feasible de-emulsification techniques due to the challenges involved in the transportation and refining of crude oil emulsions as well as produced water discharge restrictions .In the treatment of crude oil in the petroleum industry, de-emulsification is a crucial activity that is often required. Herein, the paper focuses on dispersing crude oil emulsions that are quite stable.  A unique method was employed to enhance the de-emulsification procedure by combining a centrifuge and a chemical agent, and find out how the water separation and crude oil de-emulsification processes were affected by the centrifuge and chemical components. De-emulsification tests were performed using different de-emulsifier concentrations, centrifugal speeds, and centrifuge de-emulsification time were used with different kinds of de-emulsifiers such as ethylene glycol, chlorine chloride, and DES at room temperature. The effectiveness of de-emulsifying crude oil enhanced   as the de-emulsifier content was increased.  The maximum de-emulsification attained values (85.9%, 84.4%, and 88.88%) at rates of 4% of ethylene glycol, 84.4% of chlorine chloride, and 1% of DES, respectively, and after 60 minutes of centrifuge time and speed 4000 rpm This procedure examines the best kind of de-emulsifier to employ and separates the water from the crude oil emulsion more rapidly and efficiently. 

Keywords: DES, Crude oil, Centrifuge, Emulsion, chemical method, De-emulsifier.  

3. Factors determining Internal audit quality in some selected banks in Bangladesh  


The purpose of this research was to identify and analyze the factors that determine the quality of internal audits in some selected banks in Bangladesh. The study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods and included a sample of banks chosen based on size and representation of different regions in the country. Data was collected through interviews with internal auditors, management, and regulators, as well as analysis of internal audit reports and other relevant documents. The findings of the study showed that several factors contribute to the quality of internal audits in Bangladesh's banking sector, including the independence and objectivity of the internal audit function, the expertise and qualifications of internal auditors, the adequacy of resources and support, and the effectiveness of communication and reporting. The study also identified areas for improvement, including the need for greater standardization and consistency in internal audit practices and the importance of aligning internal audit activities with the organization's risk profile. These findings have implications for internal auditors, management, regulators, and other stakeholders in the banking industry, and offer recommendations for improving the quality of internal audits in Bangladesh.

Keywords:  Internal Audit; Audit Quality; Audit Performance, Bangladesh 


4. A Review article; Characterization of Nano porous Diatomaceous for Industrial applications  


This research examines the purification of unprocessed Diatomaceous earth. With the aid of spin coating and the sol-gel technique, the diatomaceous earth material melts with other material groups. SEM must be used to carefully examine ancient diatoms. Diatom fossils from numerous distinct species are abundant in diatomite. SEM pictures display ultrafine diatomite powder and small-diameter particles, both of which have numerous technological uses, including filtration. In order to create hierarchical porous materials and analyze the physical chemistry properties of the resulting diatomite, UV-vis spectra are used. Here, we examine diatomite and a variety of its uses.

Keywords:  Diatomite, Nanotechnology, Nano porous, Process water mediterranean.