The goal of this research is to look at the temperature and solar potential variations above Tansen Nepal in 2020. Data for the study of variation are gathered from the Department of Hydrology and Metrology, Government of Nepal. The collected data are extracted and then origin software is used for analysis. Data analysis revealed that the maximum temperature in 2020 above Tansen reached 32.7 OC at 12PM and the minimum temperature reached 26 oC at 3AM. In May and July of 2020, the maximum and minimum amounts of global solar radiation (solar radiation) above Tansen were 581 Wm-2 and 85 Wm-2, respectively. Because solar parameters such as cloud transmittance, precipitation, rainfall, and relative humidity, among others, influence solar radiation and temperature, the authors assume that the temperature and radiation may be slightly higher. The study may help to select the area for extraction of solar energy and give the potential information to society to the radiation variation above Tansen.
Keywords: Solar radiation, Tansen, temperature, cloud, precipitation, rainfall, relative humidity.
This paper aims to explore the technological innovations associated with industry 4.0 and how it has altered virtually every aspect of the human life. Even though in the process of redefining technology, the insatiable and complex needs of man can be met quite considerably, there are various challenges observed with the usage of technologies by individuals, groups, business organizations and countries. Some of the consequences highlighted in this study include cyber-threat or attacks against businesses and individuals, political figures and government. The examined studies reveal that other fraudulent activities are carried out through phishing and what experts have termed ‘social engineering’. Therefore the author examines critical cases and problems which are not just socioeconomic but also sociopolitical. The qualitative method and NCSI Index were used to analyze this study. The study discovered that although the perpetration of these hacks are quite similar in nature across Nigeria, Russian Federation and the US, they are utilized with various intentions. Firstly, the NCSI analysis shows that Nigeria is low on threats which could be external, essential and crises. Unfortunately, nothing seems to be recorded for its military and digital aspects. Other variables are indicative of a high NCSI fulfilment percentage. Secondly, the Russian Federation analysis shows that it is quite above average on threats. This implies that the Russian witnesses a quite reasonable level of threats which is higher than the Nigerian fulfillment percentage. Thirdly, the US is top notch when compared to other countries like the Russian Federation and Nigeria. This is more or less unexpected considering that the US are at the fore of cyber security breach. More so, most of the variables on the representation shows that they are close to having a perfect NCSI fulfilment. The solutions as proposed in this study includes that top technological figures and companies in Nigeria, Russia and the US need to put their cyber differences aside, move beyond the firewall protection approach and weigh on how data breach can be massively reduced if not avoided in its entirety.
Keywords: Technological innovations, industry 4.0, cyber-threat.