Volume 2, Issue 5, 2021

1. The Effect of Practicing Path-Goal Leadership by Academic Leaders on Staff’s Skills Outcomes: Academic Leaders Perspectives

Omaymah Abdulwahab Radwan / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 5 (2021) 1–9


The paper aimed to examine the correlation between practicing path-goal leadership style by academic leaders and staff’s skills outcomes in the context of higher education institutions (HEIs). This study adopted the quantitative research design by randomly distributing questionnaires comprising of 21 items to academic leaders from one of the selected Saudi universities. The data was further analysed based on 150 completed responses using SPSS (V.24). It was established that there is a significant correlation between practicing path-goal leadership style by academic leaders and staff’s skills outcomes in the context of HEIs. The degree of correlation between variables was moderate (r= .465**). Although the main limitation implies that the participants were academic leaders from one of the Saudi universities, nevertheless, the results offered beneficial insights and a comprehensive conclusion regarding the importance of practicing path-goal leadership style in HEIs due its positive impact on staff and outcomes. In addition, the study recommended HEIs to give more consideration to path-goal leadership style and to consider it within the executive and development plans of academic leaders. Additionally, the study encouraged further studies to investigate more styles of leadership that impact positively on the outcomes of HEIs. The findings have the potential to reflect positively on HEIs, especially Saudi higher education due to the lack of studies regarding this issue in Saudi context. It provides an insight about the importance of path-goal leadership as an effective style for academic leaders. It guides academic leaders, educational policymakers, and practitioners to contribute to the outcomes and improve the skills of staff working in higher education.

Keywords: Path-Goal Leadership; Skills Outcomes; Staff’s Skill Outcomes; Academic Leaders; Saudi Higher Education.

2. The Unjust Authority Method to Inter-Firm Business Ethics

Frances Amaka Akpudo / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 5 (2021) 10–21


Certain acts of employer authority are prima facie morally wrong and therefore in need of a justificatory criterion. This Paper establishes three forms of employer authority that can be judged: authority in, out and via the workplace. A possible egalitarian criterion is rejected herein and the Market-Failure method to business ethics is looked to for a more convincing criterion that is in line with market logic. The method appeals to transaction-cost theory to describe the actuality of employer authority. However, the moral logic underlying it denotes that competitive behavior in the market is only justified if it exists in the spirit of the Pareto principle; it follows that employer authority within the firm is only justified if it exists in the spirit of the reason for the existence of the company. That reason, according to transaction-cost premise, is to combat uneconomical transaction outlays. This line of argument allows for a justificatory criterion for employer authority within market logic: acts of authority are only legitimate and un-coercive if they are exerted in the spirit of cutting transaction costs; unjustified acts of employer authority constitute a transaction-cost reduction failure. The three forms of employer authority are tested against the criterion and finally a list of tentative guidelines suggested for avoiding transaction-cost reduction failures.

Keywords: Employer Authority, Transaction-cost, Business Ethics

3. The Discriminate Use of Pesticides and Their Impact on Future Ethiopia

Asela Kesho et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 5 (2021) 22–31


The adverse ecological effects from pesticides occur at all levels of biological organization. The effects can be global or local, temporary or permanent, or short-lived (acute) or long-term (chronic). The most serious effects involve loss in production, changes in growth, development and/ or behavior, altered diversity or community structure, changes in system processes (such as nutrient cycling), and losses of valuable species. These ecological losses in turn may be economically or socially important. Hence, ecological effects are of serious concern in regulating pesticides use and a variety of tests have been devised to help evaluate the potential for adverse ecological effects of pesticides. Developing an understanding of how these tests and other information can be used to prevent environmental problems caused by pesticides is the basis for ecological risk assessment research. Therefore, facilitating and promoting environmental democracy in relation to pesticide safety, that all stakeholders will be better informed and on an equal footing when discussing relevant environmental issues.

Key words: Discriminate use, Ecological effects, Pesticides, Pest resistance.

4. Classification of Tanneries Solid Wastes and Strategies for Their Eco-friendly Uses: A Review

Beena Zehra et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 5 (2021) 32–40


The utilization of hides and skins as leather in various useful articles has been common from previous years are over the world. Tanning is the treatment of raw hides and skins with tanning chemicals to turn into the material against to bacterial attack, i.e, to provide a stable fiber structure which is called leather. In simple, the tanning operation is a permanent stabilization method when hide protein is brought into contact with organic or inorganic tanning agents under the appropriate conditions. It has been studied that about 75% of the purchased raw material is detached in the tanneries as a pollution generating solid or liquid waste. More than 700kg solid waste is generated from 1 ton of salted hides and skins from processing up to final leather product. The tanneries are commonly associated with high contaminated environment due to the bad odor, natural wastes and high water utilization caused during conventional manufacturing processes. Solid waste creates a major problem for tanneries in terms of both their diversity and capacity. Studies have been carried out to utilize the above leather wastes through innovative technologies. These areas of recycling are described here briefly which mainly concerned under the main headings as keratinous waste (hair , wool, etc.), skin fleshing wastes, chrome tanned solid wastes (chrome shavings and buffing dust).

Key words:Tanneries, solid wastes; beneficial uses ; keratinous wastes; skin fleshing wastes; chrome tanned solid wastes.

5.The Relationship between Size, Independence, and Meetings in the Board of Directories on Market-based Performance (Tobin’s Q) as a Measure of Performance Evidence from Amman Stock Exchange

Shatnawi et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 5 (2021) 41–53


This paper aims to examine the relationship between the board of directories (BoD) on market performance in Jordanian listed firms. The study used panel data approach over a period of five years from 2014 to 2018, with a sample of 92 non-financial firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE). In terms of the effect of BoD on organization performance, three characteristics of the board of directories these include Board size, Board independence, and Board meeting. The organization performance was assessed Tobin’s Q (TQ) as a market-based indicator. The findings showed the relationships between board of director and organization performance concerning the relationship with Tobin’s Q, the findings showed that the board size and board meeting have a significant relationship with Tobin’s Q. Conversely, board independence has an insignificant relationship with Tobin’s Q. The study contributes to the literature on board of directories and market performance in developing countries especially in Jordan. This study provides useful information that is of great value to policy makers, academics and other stakeholders.

Keywords: Board size, Board independence, Board meeting, Tobin’s Q, Jordan.

6.The Role of Student Activities in Consolidating the Citizenship Values Among Jazan University Students

Gasem Aill Alharbi / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 5 (2021) 54–65


This study sought to address the theoretical frameworks and the mechanisms of citizenship among jazan university students, as well as addressing the efforts exerted to develop citizenship via practicing different types of activities, and aimed to reveal the views of Jazan University students concerning the role of activities in developing their citizenship and show the extent to which their viewpoints are affected by the variables addressed by the study.

The descriptive method was utilized and used the questionnaire was 31 items under five main dimensions, namely cultural and social activity (8 items); sports activity (7 items); theatre activity (5 items); creative activity (5 items) and scouting activity (6 items). After checking the psychometric features of the questionnaire, it was administered to a random sample of 305 students.

The results of the research revealed that students confirmed that cultural and social activity have a very large degree of contribution to the development of citizenship; however, sports, theatre, and creative activities have only a large degree of contribution. More importantly, scouting activity has a medium degree of contribution. The results also showed that there were no statistically significant differences that may be attributed to the variables of the study.

Keywords: Student Activities

7.Translation of Conceptual Metaphor in Political Discourse from English to Arabic: A literature Review

Eman Abdallah Elqudaisi et al / / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 5 (2021) 66–73


Translation of conceptual metaphor in political discourse from English to Arabic has received significant attention in the field of research. Researchers have focused more on translating literary work and political translation in general ignoring the main role of metaphor in sending real messages in source domains. Recently, literature provides evidence that conceptual metaphor is not addressed completely in the field of research, more specifically, in translation from English to Arabic. Accordingly, the main objective of this study is to review the literature that investigated the translation of conceptual metaphor from Arabic to English in the Arab context in general and Jordan in particular. The literature to date seems to offer using modern teaching methods to improve vocabulary. This study concludes that translation from Arabic to English and vice versa has received researchers’ attention in many regards; however, the idea of translating metaphor in political speech is still a challenge, especially, in the Arab context as the nature of the political language used has been shifted completely and differently after Arab Spring and more specifically in areas that face challenges include Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Syria and many of Arab countries. This review of the literature has the possibility to help researchers to evaluate the current presence of conceptual metaphors in the political research field and hence recommends further research directions.

Key Words: Political Speech, Arabic English Translation, Conceptual Metaphor