Volume 2, Issue 2, 2021

1. Variable Rounds Block Cipher Algorithm Design

Louay Flaieh Hasan et al/ International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 2 (2021) 1–14


Feistel algorithm is a design model from which many different block ciphers are derived. DES is just one example of a Feistel Cipher. A cryptographic system based on Feistel cipher structure uses the same algorithm for both encryption and decryption. In each round, the right half of the block, R, goes through unchanged. But the left half, L, goes through an operation that depends on R and the encryption key. In the proposed algorithm the left half L and the right half R both are goes through an operation depends on the round encryption key and L, R thus both L and R goes through changed in each round, this leads to possibility use one round only to encrypt/decrypt block of input data.

The second Kerckhoff's principle stated that a cryptographic system should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is public knowledge. virtually all the contemporary encryption algorithms such as DES, AES, etc. are applied this principle. This principle leads means that message depends solely on the security of the secret encryption key. The proposed algorithm designed according to this principle.

In modern era, cryptosystem needs to cater to users who are connected to the Internet. In such cases, using a secret algorithm is not feasible, hence Kerckhoff’s principles became essential guidelines for designing algorithms in modern cryptography

The Feistel algorithm, such as DES, in real implementation instead of using the whole encryption key during each round, a round-dependent key a subkey is derived from the encryption key. This means that each round uses a different key, although all these subkeys are related to the original key. But in the proposed algorithm each round subkey is independent and unrelated to another different subkeys, this making the proposed system stronger, more secure and makes it more difficult to attack.

The proposed algorithm design, both plaintext and ciphertext block size equal to 192-bit distributed over six groups of 32 bits for each and round subkey size of 176 bit (22 byte) for each round, because the left and right half of input block goes changed through an operation by apply two encrypting functions one for left half and the second for right half that takes two input for each, the round key K as well as R and L, hence the variable number of rounds from 1 and above possible to use.

Keywords: Block cipher, round, encryption, decryption, F-Function, Plaintext block, Ciphertext Block, Key Block, Symmetric

2. Spur Gear Mesh Analysis under Explicit Dynamic Speed Conditions

Dr.Johnson Santhosh et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 2 (2020) 15–25


Gears are among the basic elements in every mechanical device. Spur gears are one type of gears which are mostly used to transmit power between two parallel shafts. The gear cut on Spur gears is also parallel to the shaft axis. The design of a gear has a direct effect on the efficiency of the system they are containing in it. This leads to giving an attention to the appropriate design and testing of the gear system. Since laboratory testing is too costly, simulation get a wider acceptance recently. In this paper, Explicit Dynamic Analysis of Spur Gear is performed to demonstrate the response of the gear to the variation of rotational speed. ANSYS workbench is used as a simulation tool. The gear is driven by a pinion gear with an angular velocity ranging from 100 to 1000 rpm for the gear ratio of 4. The 3D model is first developed in Autodesk inventor software and the imported to ANSYS workbench. In ANSYS model environment the 3D model is meshed with special mesh near the gear tooth surface for accuracy. Appropriate boundary conditions and loadings are applied. The results of the simulation for Total Deformation are provided with their maximum value at the tooth tip or tooth root.

Keywords: Explicit Analysis, Spur Gear, Parallel shafts, Pinion, Simulation

3. Understanding Ethical Expertise: A Skill Based Approach

Frances Amaka Akpudo /International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 2 (2021) 26-34


Ethical expertise has been a somewhat controversial subject, with some scholars at variance that it does not exist, and that the ethicist is not in a superior position to reflect on moral issues than the average person. Some further say the notion of ethical expertise (and in some instances expertise in general) is actually harmful to the democratic value of equality. In this paper, the argument is that there is an explicit set of skills that the ethicist holds and that these skills point to something that ought to have the mantel of expertise. These skills, such as moral sympathy, knowledge of argumentation, and knowledge of moral theory do place the philosophically trained ethicist in a better position to discuss moral issues. The work of John Dewey is drawn from, who argues that morality is about growth and transformation, and not simply about arguing for certain values. Dewey saw ethics, the skills of reflection or moral sympathy, as the explanation to becoming a morally stable person. Those who refute ethical expertise fall short of composing a distinction between morality and ethics, with the former being the values a society holds and the latter being the capacity to reflect on these issues. With this manner of understanding it is possible to confirm there is such a thing as ethical expertise. This work will confirm that a strong skill based approach allows for a superior understanding of what ethical expertise is and how it can be employed.

Keywords: Ethical expertise; Ethicist; Skill-Based

4. Towards an effective implementation of Wifi-MS-Patch antenna

M.M Elsherbini et al /International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 2 (2021) 35-40


A humble microstrip patch antenna comprises a metallic patch and ground between which is a dielectric medium called the substrate. Microstrip patch antennas are utilized for correspondence purposes, particularly in the military and common applications. In this paper, a simple microstrip antenna is planned in CST Microwave Studio at a resonant frequency of 2.4 GHz. The gain of the designed antenna is 8.27 dB and VSWR of 1.08.

Keywords: Microstrip patch; Dielectric substrate; Single patch; Patch array;VSWR.

5. Impacts of Air Pollution on Climate Change: The Health Impact

C. Mangodo et al /International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 2 (2021) 41-47


In recent years, pollution has caused more deaths worldwide, making it a serious concern of public health. However, future global climate change may exacerbate such human health impacts by increasing the frequency and duration of weather that enhance pollution exposure. pollution significantly affects health, causing on the brink of 7 million premature deaths annually with a bigger number of individuals hospitalized. Continued reductions in pollution and greenhouse emission (GHG) emissions are essential because they pose serious threats to both people’s health and therefore the environment across the planet . pollution and global climate change influence one another through complex interactions within the atmosphere.

Increasing levels of GHGs alter the energy balance between the atmosphere and therefore the Earth’s surface which, in turn, can cause temperature changes that change the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Direct emissions of air pollutants like black carbon or emissions from sulfate and ozone also can influence the energy balance.

It was observed that emissions are linked to air quality and global climate change , on this thematic issue the presents review investigates the trade-offs and co-benefits which will be gained from reducing both long-lived GHGs, liable for global climate change , and air pollutants, liable for adverse impacts on human health, ecosystems and therefore the climate.

Keyword: pollution , global climate change , Emission, Health.

6.Quartic Trigonometric B-Spline Collocation Method for Numerical Solution of the One Dimensional Non-linear Equation

Hamad Salih et al /International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 2 (2021) 48-56


Numerical solution of the modified equal width equation is getting by quartic trigonometric B-spline scheme. The approach based on finite difference scheme with the help of Crank-Nicolson formulation. The finite difference scheme is used for time integration and quartic trigonometric B-spline function for space integration. Performance and accuracy of the scheme is validated through testing two problems by using conserved laws and and error norms and applying the Von-Neumann stability analysis shows to be unconditionally stable.

Keyword: Quartic trigonometric B-spline, finite difference, modified equal width equation, Von-Neumann.