Volume 2, Issue 6, 2021

1. Evaluation of Biofertilization on Growth and Yield of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L) Grown on Sandy Soil


Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) was treated with four microorganisms (Azotobacter sp, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence and Trichoderma. harzianum (as biofertilizers in individual or in combinations inoculants to determine the growth and yield of such plant. The obtained results showed that treatment by microorganisms in combination is the best choice in improving of tomato growth and its yield after 60 days of seedling planting, followed by Azotobacter, B. subtilis and T. harzianum since they were 72.08, 67.75, 63.50 and 63.25 cm/plant respectively. Whereas Pseudomonas fluorescence showed moderate effect in increasing of plant growth compared with the control. Treatments by biofertilizing microorganisms in combination exhibited highest values for both fresh and dry weights, number of fruits and average of fruits weight, N, P and K percentage since they were (16.19 for fresh weight, 4.06 dry weight,5.83 number of fruits,87.63 Av weight, 3.07 N% 0.47P% and 3.39 K%) compared with individual treatments and control (untreated plants).

Keywords: Tomato, Biofertilizers, Plant Growth-promoting, Rhizobacteria, Phytohormones, greenhouse conditions.

2. Organizational Agility as a Management Approach Point to Counter the Repercussions of the Coronavirus in Emerging Saudi Universities


Objective: The study's primary goal was to uncover the reality of organizational agility in emerging Saudi universities. It also aimed to determine the statistical variances between the mean scores of the sample used in the axes of the organizational agility questionnaire for emerging Saudi universities. The main variables used are gender, academic position, and years of experience. Lastly, this research aimed to present a proposal for using the organizational agility approach to face the repercussions of the coronavirus in emerging Saudi universities.

Methodology: The study utilized the descriptive method. The data collection process entailed handing out questionnaires to a sample of 747 faculty members in Jazan, Bishah, Hafar Al-Batin, Shaqraa, and Najran Universities. The questionnaires were handed out in the second semester of 2020.

Results: Emerging Saudi universities regularly practice organizational agility in light of the emerging coronavirus with high flexibility at moderate costs. The study's results also indicated mathematically substantial variances at the (0.05) degree of viability between the average of the male sample and the average of the female sample in favor of the female sample in the timing and the flexibility of practices. It also indicated statistically significant variances at the degree of significance (0.05) between the mean scores of the research sample, attributed to the difference in the academic position in the timing, the flexibility, and the cost of practices. Lastly, it indicated no statistically significant variances at the degree of significance (0.05) between the mean scores of the research sample, which was attributed to the variable ‘years of experience’.

Applications of this study: The study is beneficial to faculty members regarding the scientific knowledge it offers on the reality of organizational agility in emerging Saudi universities. They can use the results of the study to participate in improving the organizational capacity of their universities. The study is among the first studies in the organizational agility field conducted in the Saudi environment. Moreover, the study provides a better comprehension of organizational capacity in emerging Saudi universities. It also offers new knowledge as it comes up with a proposed vision for the use of organizational agility in Saudi universities in facing the repercussions of the coronavirus (COVID-19).

Keywords: Organizational agility; Strategy; Coronavirus.

3. Malnutrition in Hemodialysis Patents in Al-Karak Governorate in Jordan


Malnutrition is common among dialysis patients worldwide, as it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Proper nutrition may play an important role in improving nutritional status and reducing malnutrition and complications from dialysis. The aim of this study to evaluate the prevalence of malnutrition on hemodialysis patients in Al-Karak governorate. Ninety-seven hemodialysis patients (56 males and 41 females) participated in this study; and their ages ranged from 23 to 83 years ( 52.72±14.17 years). Data were collected by questionnaire to determined the demographic, socioeconomic, and medical history factors, and 24 hours recall for a few day to determine the amount of energy intake . In addition to biochemical tests like albumin, creatinine, and cholesterol. Where the results showed that about (86.59%) patients had low energy intake , (88.65%) patients who had low protein intake , (68.04%) patients with hypoalbuminemia , (47.42%) patients with low serum creatinine and (72.16%) patients with low serum cholesterol. Furthermore , 88.65% of patients had hypertension and 37.11% of patients had diabetes mellitus. The results revealed high rates of malnutrition and complications of hemodialysis among patients in Karak city. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously assess the nutritional status of patients to improve their nutritional status and quality of life.

Keywords: malnutrition , dialysis, kidney failure.

4. Driver’s of Deforestation in Nigeria: The impact of illegal Logging


Forestry is considered as vital to human life because it provides a wide range of resources, and ecosystem services. Forests play a vital role in the storage of carbon and production of oxygen necessary for human survival. Forest also play a role in regulation of the hydrological cycle, purification of water, habitats for wildlife and global warming reduction,others includes toxic gases absorption and soil conservation. This review aims to analyze the causes of deforestation in Nigeria and the effects on climate . Considering all the importance and usefulness of forest, conservation of forests must be taken into seriously to ensure a safe place for every living organism. This review will also discuss factors affecting forestry in Nigeria. These factors include illegal forest activities, deforestation and weak government policy. The result of this review shows that preventive measures to control forest illegalities must be implemented. Encourage the stakeholder’s involvement in forest management. For the rural settlers to be responsible for environmental protection, they need to be educated on the ecological importance of forests and tree coverage.

Keywords: Forest, Climate, Government Policy, Illegal falling, Forest Products.

5.Major Fungi Associated with some Cereals, Oils and Legume Crops of Seeds Grown in Main Season at Holetta Agricultural Research Center by Seed Technology Multiplication (HARC, EIAR)


The study is designed to determine the identity and incidences of major fungi associated with crop seeds and establish and update the list of major seed-borne fungi associated with crop seeds in Holetta agricultural research center seed multiplication. The current work was carried out using different seed classes totally twenty four samples of nine crops Wheat, Barley, Teff, Oat, Linseed, Faba bean, Field pea, Rapeseed and Nug. Seed samples were collected to investigate the presence and incidence of fungi associated with them using PDA media in 2020 at plant quarantine laboratory of Holetta agricultural research center, Ethiopian institute of agricultural research. Results of the mycological analysis revealed that a total of 10 fungi belonging to 9 genera viz. Penicillium sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Bipolaris sp., Botrytis sp., Phoma sp., Alternaria sp., Fusarium oxysporiumand Rhizopus sp. were isolated from samples of the different crop seeds of seed classes from different fields obtained from seed multiplication store, EIAR, HARC. The infection percentage varied from 15-100 % in samples of seed multiplication store. All varieties of Barley, Oat, Wheat, Faba bean, Field pea, Rapeseed and Nug showed 100% infection followed by Teff variety Kuncho (87.5%), Kora (65.83%) and Degem (65%) and Chilalo variety of Linseed showed infection of 57.5%. Belay-96 variety of Linseed showed least infections of 15%. The obtained results revealed that seed-borne fungi were present in most seed samples of important cereals, oils and legume crops of different seed classes from different fields. Some of the identified fungi are potential producers of mycotoxins, thus their presence is important in terms of reduced food safety for humans and animals. Therefore, an early and accurate diagnosis and pathogen surveillance will provide time for the development and the application of disease management strategies.

Keywords: – Associated Fungi; Crops; Incidence; Postharvest Deterioration.

6. The Use of Metaphors in a Political Speech Translated From English Into Arabic


Metaphors constitute a key element of political discourse in just about any language. That being said, little has been done to investigate the use of metaphors in political-feature articles translated from English into Arabic. The authentic texts, written in both Arabic and English, involve Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in which texts are analyzed to examine how writers in both languages employ metaphors in the original texts. The translated texts from English into Arabic involve CDA and Contrastive Analysis (CA) wherein texts are analyzed before being compared and contrasted with the authentic texts. The results of the study show a significant level of reliance on metaphors for communicating political messages with the target audiences in the STs. This, in turn, requires an adequate translation from English into Arabic to preserve the intended messages. In other words, the present study shows the critical importance of accurately translating political metaphors from English into Arabic, which could be further justified from the perspective of conveying the most appropriate and accurate message to the target audience.

Key Words: Metaphor, Translation, Critical Discourse Analysis, Political Speech.

7. A Prioritization Approach Upon Non-Functional and Functional User Stories in Agile-Scrum Software Development (i-USPA): A Preliminary Results


Some studies claimed that negligence of non-functional user stories become the cause to failure of software products. Indeed, to achieve a high-quality software product, during the prioritization process, both functional and non-functional user stories should take into account. Although several prioritizations for user stories have been proposed so far, however, it does not provide a specific approach or technique to consider both functional and non-functional user stories during the prioritization process. Non-functional user stories are being neglected because functional user stories are considered to be more important than non-functional user stories, lack of knowledge and methodologies to accomplish non-functional user stories and the nature of Agile Software Development process itself. Therefore, this study aims to enhance the process of user stories prioritization by integrating the functional and non-functional user-stories concurrently in Agile-Scrum Software Development. This integrated technique is called as Integrated User Story Prioritization Approach (i-USPA). The studies showed the highly need of improving the user stories prioritization process would assist the Product Owner and the stakeholders to effectively prioritize the user stories process of software products. The implemented i-USPA has been evaluated through evaluation survey which addressed directly to Scrum practitioners. Its suitability and effectiveness in prioritizing user stories in Sprint Backlog will be measured based on evaluation survey feedbacks. Hence, this study concludes that i-USPA is suitable to be used for prioritizing user stories in Scrum project. It was believed the enhanced process can reduce the required time to perform the user stories prioritization task.

Keywords: Requirements Prioritization; Functional User Stories; Non-Functional User Stories; Requirements; Agile-Scrum Method.

8. Environmental Availability of Trace Elements (Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Urban Soils, Suburban in Sirt-Libya


Urban soils of 10 Sites in Sirt city, mainly located in central of Libya, bordered on the north the Mediterranean Sea, were collected of 2020 to measure the contamination levels of six heavy metals including copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb). Additionally, the potential human health risk for adults and children were evaluated. Shapiro-Wilk normality test and Q-Q plots were utilized to test the collected data of all elements in all regions to examine of data normality in order to determine the most appropriate test for statistical analysis. The bar plots and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were utilized to illustrate the variability of concentrations of heavy metals in different areas. The results indicated that concentrations of heavy metals except the iron in the urban soils are within the permissible limits of both geochemical background values and also soil quality guideline values. The exceptional high ratio of iron was determined mainly in Sirt city where was the war-torn areas in 2011 and 2016 leading to the high rates of cancer in the area recently

Keywords: Soil quality reference values, sandy soils, background potentially harmful elements, soil pollution.

Developing prediction model and assessment of dominant parameters affecting laser beam cutting of stainless steel (AISI 304)


One of the most widely used thermal energy processes that can be applied to almost the entire range of materials is the laser beam machine (LBM). Any process the settings can have a significant impact on the quality of laser cutting that result. The paper addresses the application of response surface methods to mathematical model the surface roughness (Ra) and the kerf width (Kw) in Co2 laser beam cutting with the continuous wave of stainless steel SS 304. The experiment has been carried out using the Taguchi L18 mixed orthogonal network technique. A series of experiments are conducted on SS 304 stainless steel using CO2 LBM with the continuous wave to evaluate cutting process parameters such as Laser power (LP), Cutting speed (CS), Nitrogen gas pressure (GP), and Focal point position (FP). To analyze the effect of each process parameters on response regression analysis, Analysis of variance (ANOVA), and 3D surface, and contour plot was used. The experimental results were used to develop a regression mathematical model. Minitab software is used to implement the codes and to get the results. Finally, the predicted results of laser cutting conditions have been found at which the highest quality or minimum cost can be achieved. From the result obtained, response values show that Cutting speed (F – value 1.48), assistance gas pressure (F – value 0.02) has the most significant factor that affects and has little effect on surface roughness respectively. Focal point position (F – value 51.15), Laser power (F – value 0.02) has the most significant factor that affects and has little effect on kerf width respectively. The obtained results showed a good agreement between the model and the experimental data. The predictive model approach presented in this study is quite work and is expected to be useful in reducing time-consuming and expensive experimental runs.

Keywords: Laser beam machining, surface roughness, kerf width, ANOVA, RSM