The Fourth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE

OF BASIC SCIENCES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

The Fourth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE

OF BASIC SCIENCES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

Under Auspices of

Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-Beida – Libya

Chairman of the Conference

Prof. HAMAD. M. ADRES HASAN

Chairman of Scientific Committee

Prof. Fawzi A. Ikraiam

General Coordinators

Assoc. Prof. Ibrahim Salem Eldurssi

Mrs. Abeer Mohammed Taher

Scientific Committee

Prof. Fawzi A. Ikraiam

(Physics)

Prof. Ramadan A. Saleh

(Marine Science)

Prof. Abdelsalam M. Abo-Alhaj

(Zoology)

Prof. Farag M. Shouaib

(Botany)

Prof. Idress Hamad.Atetallah

(Microbiology)

Asst. Prof. Fawzi M. Abdalhadem

(Geology)

Prof. Sabah Lamlom

(Botany)

Assoc. Prof. Mohammed. M. Eshag

(Computer Science)

Asst. Prof. Asma Al-Salai

(Chemistry)

Asst. Prof. Tahani Almabrouk

(Computer Science)

Asst. Prof. Anis Ibrahim Fadheel

(Mathematical Science)

Organizing Committee

Assoc. Prof. Ibrahim Salem Eldurssi

Assoc. Prof. Marfoua Saleh Ali

Mrs. Abeer Mohammed Taher

Mr. Esam Mahmoud Bozaid

Mrs. Amina Mohamed Yousef


Prof. HAMAD .M. ADRESS. HASAN

Chairman of the Conference

Conference Message

It gives us immense pleasure as a host of the conference to extend a cordial welcome to all participants who expressed a keen interest in attending and actively participating in the conference proceedings. Starting from the date of its announcement, the conference has received an overwhelming response from researchers who belong to various faculties from several countries. The participation of many of researchers of different nationalities and backgrounds highlights the importance of presenting and discussing their research findings with their peers of mutual interest and sharing them with the scientific community all over the world. The Faculty of Science at Omar Al-Mukhtar University takes pride in bringing these professionals together to participate in the conference.

It is also gratifying to note that the conference covers a wide range of interesting topics relating to basic sciences and their applications. We cordially invite all those with an interest and/or participatory role in scientific or applied research in the related fields of basic sciences and their applications, management, and sustainable utilization to share their knowledge and expertise by taking an active part in the conference. With the facilities are arranging for the conference, the guests will be allowed to visit some historical sites such as Cyrene's old city in the Al-Jabal Al-Akhder region of Libya. We're looking forward to seeing you at the conference.

Prof. HAMAD .M. ADRESS. HASAN

Chairman of the Conference


1. Allelopathic potential of Peganum harmala L. and Seriphidium herba-alba (Asso) Sojak on the germination and growth of Raphanus sativus L

Abstract:

Allelopathy is defined as any process involving the production of secondary metabolites known as allelochemicals by plants, which released to the environment that influence the growth and development of other plants. This study was conducted at the laboratories of El-Marj University during the spring of 2019, in aims to understand the effect of the allelopathic impact of two plant species; Peganum harmala L. and Seriphidium herba-alba (Asso) Soják on the germination and growth of Raphanus sativus L. by using the water extraction method of three concentrations of grinded plant parts (10,15, and 30 gr) of the two plant species. Our results illustrated that the extraction of 15 and 30 gr of P. harmala inhibited the germination and seedling growth of R. sativus, while at the concentration of 10 gm promoted the growth of R. sativus by 6.6%. On the other hand, the extraction of 30 gm. concentration of S. herba-alba inhibited the growth of R. sativus, meanwhile, the 10 and 15 gm concentration promoted the growth rate by 23.3 and 16.6% respectively when compared to the control samples. The study illustrated that the cultivation of P. harmala and S. herba-alba as intercrop should be carefully used and minimized to the lower levels.

Keywords: allelopathy, allelochemical, plant extraction, seedling growth, germination.

2. Analysis of Proteins in FiveWheat Varieties in Libya

Abstract:


Wheat is considered one of the basic crops in Libya and it contains a high percentage of protein. The protein ratio in this plant has been studied using the Bradford method to estimate protein content using Spectrophotometerand it is considered one of the easiest methods used and more accurate in terms of measuring the total protein percentage according to some studies. Five varieties of Libyan wheat have three varieties of soft wheat and two varieties of durum wheat. The results show varying proportions. Protein sample showed significant difference (p>0.05) in the protein quantity of the five wheat cultivars.The results of all cultivars were significant except in Carem cultivar .Wamyd cultivar showed a high the absorbance, which was 0.82 second, followed by Slambo cultivar 0.79, then Bahij cultivar 0.71, and Carem cultivar 0.69, whereasAlkasy cultivar, as mentioned above, showed the lowest protein concentration 0.48, these results was highly significant between all cultivars except between Bahij and Carem cultivars.

Keywords: Proteins.

3. Size Structure of Arbutus pavarii and Juniperus phoenicea Populations in Al-Marj Plain, Libya

Abstract:


The present work aims to study the size structure of Juniperus phoenicea and Arbutus pavarii populations in relation to their physiographic and soil conditions in Al-Marj Plain, north east of Libya. Cover percentage of the two species was assessed in ten selected quadrates (20 x 20 m) representing three habitats. The number of individuals of each species was counted while the height (H) and mean crown diameter (D) were measured. The size index of each individual was calculated and then used to classify population into 7 size classes: 1 m size 7 m. The height, mean diameter, height to diameter ratio, size index and volume per individual in each size class were determined. Generally, the height to diameter ratio was more than unity for Arbutus pavarii and Juniperus phoenicea, this means that the diameter of these species tend to expand vertically rather than horizontally, The total size structure of Juniperus phoenicea in the study area is characterized by the preponderance of the young individuals comparing with the old ones, while that of Arbutus pavarii showed a reverse pattern (i.e. preponderance of mature individual compared with the young ones). Soil of the clay depression has the highest values of EC, HCO3- , Ca⁺², Mg⁺² and K⁺, while sand dunes have the lowest values except CI ̄ and N+. The increased human activities have adversely affected both the size structure and species diversity in the area under study, this effect has been intensified due to the increase in the population and the import of modern mechanization which has caused an increase (in both density and area) of the destructive effects of human activities. Although this region is one of the important areas for wildlife in Libya, it suffers from extreme biodiversity destruction and degradation.

Key words: Population dynamic; Size distribution; Arbutus pavarii; Juniperus phoenicea, Al-Marj Plain, Libya.


4. Conservation of Origanum syriacum and determination of moisture content

Abstract:


The present study focused on the conservation of some medicinal plants, the specific threats facing conservation and sustainable use of these globally significant medicinal species. Seed germination experiments were done for the studied species and revealed that the highest germination of Origanum syriacum (23.8%) obtained when seeds were soaked in GA3 (10 ppm) for 24h before sowing at room temperature. After had been soaked in dilute Tetrazolium salt Solution for 24 hours, 76% of the Origanum syriacum seeds. The moisture content of each sample was determined in a drying oven at 130°C for 4 hours. The results showed that seeds moisture content for Origanum syriacum, are 7.5%.

Key words: Conservation- Germination - Moisture content- Origanum syriacum.

5.Effect of magnetic treatment in improve growth of three wheat cultivars irrigated with seawate


Abstract:


This study investigate the role of magnetic treatments (1480G) on growth parameters, seedling vigour index and DNA fingerprinting of three wheat cultivars , mainly Aksad901, Karem and Gamina with irrigated seawater levels (distilled water, 20, 50 and 80%). Results showed that, seawater caused decreases on seedling growth parameters (shoot length, root length, number of Leaves /plant, leaf area, and fresh and dry weights ) and seedling vigor index of three wheat cultivars with increasing seawater levels as compared to control.Whereas the magnetic seawatertreatments enhanced these parameters, especially at the levels0 and 20%, caused a significant increase in growth parameters generally, while treatments with 50 and 80% were nonsignificant decreasein some parametersofthree cultivars. The Molecular study using RAPD technique showed that new DNA bands and appearance of polymorphism (%) between control and treatment with 50% seawater or magnetic seawater suchas , Karem and Gamina seedling sample was a value of polymorphism 25% and 57.1% respectively by B12 primer , while this primer gave the same patterns of 7 bands products in control and 50% magnetic seawater in Aksad901 cultivar. These results give a positive indication of the use of magnetic field to ameliorate the toxic effects of seawater on wheat plants.

Keywords: Seawater, Magnetic treatment, Aksad901, Karem, Gamina, Growth parameter, DNA polymorphism.

6. Evaluation of some mycorhizae isolated from AljabalAlkhdar forest soil as inocula for improving growth of cucumber plant

Abstract:


A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effect of inoculation with 5 AFM strains previously isolated from Aljabal Alakhdar forest soil on growth of cucumber (cucumis sativus) under p-fertilizer application. According to their morphological and molecular attributes these strains were previously identified with accession numbers as Claroideoglomus etunicatum (MF599211), Archaeospora trappei (MF599213), Scutellospora sp., (MF599226), Gigspora sp (MF599222) and Rhizophagus intraradices (MF599223). Cucumber seeds were sown in pots filled with sandy loam soil and either inoculated or not with a single inocula strain of the examined AFM strains. Phosphorus was applied as mono-calcium phosphate or phosphoric acid at the recommended rates of application. Plants were measured after 30 and 60 days after sowing for leave area (cm2/plant), shoot fresh weight (g/plant), shoot dry weight (g/plant), root fresh weight (g/plant), root dry weight (g/plant) and NPK contents (mg/100g). The obtained results indicate that all inocula strains supported growth vigor of cucumber roots and enhanced P-N and K-uptake, although the increases were not statistically significant in some cases. Significant increases in leaf area were only recorded due to inoculation with Archaeospora trappei and Glomus eutunicatus, respectively. P-fertilizer application in the form of mono-calcium phosphate magnified the beneficial effect of AFM inoculation on cucumber leaf No. plant height when compared with those grown without P-fertilizer application or with phosphoric acid. Plants inoculated with Archaeospora trappei had higher leaf area, shoot and root dry weights and increased P- and N- contents when compared with controls or those received phosphoric acid.

Keywords: cucumber, Arbuscular Mycorrhizae, cucumber, inoculation, Evaluation.

7. Size Structure of Arbutus pavarii and Juniperus phoenicea Populations in Al-Marj Plain, Libya

Abstract:


The present work aims to study the size structure of Juniperus phoenicea and Arbutus pavarii populations in relation to their physiographic and soil conditions in Al-Marj Plain, north east of Libya. Cover percentage of the two species was assessed in ten selected quadrates (20 x 20 m) representing three habitats. The number of individuals of each species was counted while the height (H) and mean crown diameter (D) were measured. The size index of each individual was calculated and then used to classify population into 7 size classes: 1 m size 7 m. The height, mean diameter, height to diameter ratio, size index and volume per individual in each size class were determined. Generally, the height to diameter ratio was more than unity for Arbutus pavarii and Juniperus phoenicea, this means that the diameter of these species tend to expand vertically rather than horizontally, The total size structure of Juniperus phoenicea in the study area is characterized by the preponderance of the young individuals comparing with the old ones, while that of Arbutus pavarii showed a reverse pattern (i.e. preponderance of mature individual compared with the young ones). Soil of the clay depression has the highest values of EC, HCO3- , Ca⁺², Mg⁺² and K⁺, while sand dunes have the lowest values except CI ̄ and N+. The increased human activities have adversely affected both the size structure and species diversity in the area under study, this effect has been intensified due to the increase in the population and the import of modern mechanization which has caused an increase (in both density and area) of the destructive effects of human activities. Although this region is one of the important areas for wildlife in Libya, it suffers from extreme biodiversity destruction and degradation.

Key words: Population dynamic; Size distribution; Arbutus pavarii; Juniperus phoenicea, Al-Marj Plain, Libya.

8. Evaluation of some mycorhizae isolated from AljabalAlkhdar forest soil as inocula for improving growth of cucumber plant

Abstract:


A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effect of inoculation with 5 AFM strains previously isolated from Aljabal Alakhdar forest soil on growth of cucumber (cucumis sativus) under p-fertilizer application. According to their morphological and molecular attributes these strains were previously identified with accession numbers as Claroideoglomus etunicatum (MF599211), Archaeospora trappei (MF599213), Scutellospora sp., (MF599226), Gigspora sp (MF599222) and Rhizophagus intraradices (MF599223). Cucumber seeds were sown in pots filled with sandy loam soil and either inoculated or not with a single inocula strain of the examined AFM strains. Phosphorus was applied as mono-calcium phosphate or phosphoric acid at the recommended rates of application. Plants were measured after 30 and 60 days after sowing for leave area (cm2/plant), shoot fresh weight (g/plant), shoot dry weight (g/plant), root fresh weight (g/plant), root dry weight (g/plant) and NPK contents (mg/100g). The obtained results indicate that all inocula strains supported growth vigor of cucumber roots and enhanced P-N and K-uptake, although the increases were not statistically significant in some cases. Significant increases in leaf area were only recorded due to inoculation with Archaeospora trappei and Glomus eutunicatus, respectively. P-fertilizer application in the form of mono-calcium phosphate magnified the beneficial effect of AFM inoculation on cucumber leaf No. plant height when compared with those grown without P-fertilizer application or with phosphoric acid. Plants inoculated with Archaeospora trappei had higher leaf area, shoot and root dry weights and increased P- and N- contents when compared with controls or those received phosphoric acid.

Keywords: cucumber, Arbuscular Mycorrhizae, cucumber, inoculation, Evaluation.

9. Effect of magnetic treatment in improve growth of three wheat cultivars irrigated with seawater

Abstract:

This study investigate the role of magnetic treatments (1480G) on growth parameters, seedling vigour index and DNA fingerprinting of three wheat cultivars , mainly Aksad901, Karem and Gamina with irrigated seawater levels (distilled water, 20, 50 and 80%). Results showed that, seawater caused decreases on seedling growth parameters (shoot length, root length, number of Leaves /plant, leaf area, and fresh and dry weights ) and seedling vigor index of three wheat cultivars with increasing seawater levels as compared to control.Whereas the magnetic seawatertreatments enhanced these parameters,especially atthe levels0 and 20%, caused a significant increase in growth parameters generally, while treatments with 50 and 80% were nonsignificant decreasein some parametersofthree cultivars. The Molecular study using RAPD technique showed that new DNA bands and appearance of polymorphism (%) between control and treatment with 50% seawater or magnetic seawater suchas , Karem and Gamina seedling sample was a value of polymorphism 25% and 57.1% respectively by B12 primer , while this primer gave the same patterns of 7 bands products in control and 50% magnetic seawater in Aksad901 cultivar. These results give a positive indication of the use of magnetic field to ameliorate the toxic effects of seawater on wheat plants.

Keywords: Seawater, Magnetic treatment, Aksad901, Karem, Gamina, Growth parameter, DNA polymorphism.

10. Conservation of Origanum syriacum and determination of moisture content


Abstract:

The present study focused on the conservation of some medicinal plants, the specific threats facing conservation and sustainable use of these globally significant medicinal species. Seed germination experiments were done for the studied species and revealed that the highest germination of Origanum syriacum (23.8%) obtained when seeds were soaked in GA3 (10 ppm) for 24h before sowing at room temperature. After had been soaked in dilute Tetrazolium salt Solution for 24 hours, 76% of the Origanum syriacum seeds. The moisture content of each sample was determined in a drying oven at 130°C for 4 hours. The results showed that seeds moisture content for Origanum syriacum, are 7.5%.

Key words: Conservation- Germination - Moisture content- Origanum syriacum.

11. Dimethyldioctadecylammonium Bromide Modified Zeolite as a Novel Adsorbent for Natural Organic Matter from the Aqueous Medium in a Fixed Bed Reactor

Awad F. Elsheikh / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Special Issue 1 (2021) 73–91

Abstract:

The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) typically as humic acid (HA) produces carcinogenic trihalomethane (THM) during further disinfection by chlorination in water treatment processes. The removal of HA is essential and this study was undertaken to develop novel zeolite based adsorption techniques. Natural zeolite was modified by different loading of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB) to make more efficient sites for HA adsorption. The optimum loading of surfactant was later utilized in adsorption studies. X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to study the surface properties of the NZ and surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ-DDAB). The effects of a variety of experimental conditions, such as the flow rate (Q), initial HA concentration (C0), and bed depth (Z), were studied. Optimization studies demonstrated that the SMZ bed with DDAB loading of 125% of ECEC (SMZ-125%) exhibited enhanced adsorption performance compared to NZ. An insight of the adsorption mechanism of SMZ-125% proved that a monolayer formation is the main viable packing that allows maximum removal of HA. HA adsorption on SMZ-125% surfaces is largely a result of the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding. The adsorption data were utilized on two well-established fixed bed adsorption models, namely Thomas and Adam–Bohart. The Thomas model provided the better simulations, with the highest correlation values of (85≤ R2≤ 0.92), low error function value (less than 19), and small variances in the predictions of the process performances of SMZ-DDAB.

Keywords: Adsorption; neutral zeolite, removal humic acid; surfactant modified zeolite; trihalomethanes.

12. Analysis of Potato Chips: Evaluation of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride Contents

Maysoon et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Special Issue 1 (2021) 92–97

Abstract:

The present study was performed to evaluate the sodium (Na), potassium (K), and chloride (Cl-) levels in potato chips being sold in Benghazi-Libya markets, and to evaluate their health risk on customers. Flame photometry was used to detect the levels of Na and K, while titrimetry (Mohr's method) was used to determine the concentration of chloride ions. A sum of Twenty various samples of potato chips were collected from supermarkets in Benghazi city. The results showed that, the levels of Na, K, and Cl- were higher than the determined levels proposed by produced companies. The average concentration of the ions in potato chips were found as follows: 486±3.66, 238±3.17 and 766±11.21 ppm for Na, K, and Cl-, respectively.

Keywords: Sodium, Potassium, flame photometry, potato chips.

13. Adsorption of lead acetate by heat-treated eggshells (municipal and imported): A comparative study

Abdelrahman et al/ International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Special Issue 1 (2021) 98–107

Abstract:

Lead acetate salt is a serious threat toward human and animal. Sustainability by recycling eggshells waste is considered in this study. Domestic and imported eggshells charcoal are been utilized as an adsorbent for lead acetate salt from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was at known concentrations of the salt. Calibration was the method to determine the amount of the salt adsorbed by the eggshells powder. This experiment was at various conditions of time, temperatures, and different amounts of the adsorbent. These factors were analyzed according to a Langmuir model. During the period of (5-30 mins), the percentage of extortion by the imported eggshells ranged between (56-66.8 %), while it was (28.7-39.2 %) via the municipal eggshells. The effect of the temperature was studied in the thermal range of (50–300˚C). The proportion of extraction by the imported eggshells was between (68-57.2 %), and (32.04-62.8 %) for the municipal eggshells. The effect of adsorbent amount was also investigated using two quantities (2g and 3g). At 2g, the percentage of adsorption were (52.01–84.95 %), and (32.5–74.1 %) for imported and municipal eggshells, respectively; comparing to that for 3g, was found equal to (64–76.3 %) and (20.1-83.9 %) for municipal and imported, on the relay. These findings showed that the imported eggshells presented a higher ability of adsorption in terms of (time and temperature) variation; over the municipal. Contrarily, municipal eggshells demonstrated higher capacity concerning quantity variation rather than the imported ones. Generally, eggshells waste represents an excellent low-cost adsorbent for treatment of lead acetate in aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Eggshells, waste, Lead acetate, adsorption, Sustainability, recycling.

14. Release of a Dye from Potato Starch Edible Films Triggered by pH changing of Aqueous Solution

Fateh Eltaboni et al/ International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Special Issue 1 (2021) 108–113

Abstract:

Starch is a vital plant polymer used in thousands of food and non-food products. Researchers have made great efforts over the past decades to develop ingredients based on nature which enhance starch texture and nutritional values. Starch has many non-food applications, ranging from body care to medicinal applications, among its uses in other foodstuffs. Since starch is sustainable and environmentally friendly material, in many chemical applications, including plastics, detergents and glues, it can serve as a good substitute for fossil-fuel components. This work aims to introduce edible starch films-based carriers for supporting the release of fluorescein as a model drug. Physical modification for potato starch carriers (PSS) was done by incorporating glycerol and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) molecules. Fluorescein dye was incorporated in edible films to investigate the amount of release by UV-vis technique. It was found that PSS-LDPE is spread better than LDPE at physiological temperature and PSS dissolution is also appropriate at this temperature. While PSS formed faster edible film than LDPE and PSS-LDPE, it decayed within 3 days. The amounts of dye released from PSS and PSS-LDPE films were higher than that of fluorescein dispersed in starch suspension in buffer solution (pH 7 and 10) at 37oC.

Keywords: Potato starch, edible film, release, pH changing.

15. Quality evaluation of some pineapple juices in Benghazi city


Khadija EL-turki et al/ International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Special Issue 1 (2021) 114–117

Abstract:

Fruit juices are known to contain organic acids such as citric acid, ascorbic acid, malic and tartaric acid. These acids are found in the fresh fruit from which the juice is made and added as a dietary supplement during manufacturing. This study investigated the ascorbic acid contents of pineapple juice. Eight samples of pineapple juice 2019 produced were randomly collected from different markets of Benghazi-Libya and measured acidity by titrimetric method and pH , Microbial analysis were studies. The physical properties studied included pH, total acidity and titratable acidity (TTA), with value ranges of 3.17-4.27, 0.35-1.18, 3.50-11.80 %, respectively. Though the values for pH and titratable acidity occurred in a reversed case which showed that these juices have the advantage of being stored for a long time, there is need to carry out further investigation to determine its shelf-life stability.

Keywords: pineapple, fruit juice, quality characteristics, quality evaluation.

16. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for the investigate the interaction effect between Schiff bases complexes and pH


Dalal M Ibrahima et al/ International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Special Issue 1 (2021) 118–125

Abstract:

In recent years, discovering new compounds that have biological activity were studied by many researchers. In this paper, four metal complexes have been synthesized from Co (II) and Mn (II) chloride and ligands 2-((3-nitrophenylimino) methyl) phenol (HL1) and 2- ((4-nitrophenylimino) methyl) phenol (HL2) in 1:2 M ratio. FTIR and molar conductance measurements were used to characterize the structure of complexes. The complexes were found to be non electrolytic on the basis of molar conductance studies. The metal complexes have also been tested for their PH activity at different concentrations by used Response Surface Method , the designs provided the results, for Co complex 1 and Co complex 2 where the PH measurement increased with the increase in the weight complex while The interactive effect of the weight complex on the PH was opposite in Mn complex 1 and Mn complex 2 where, the PH measurement increased with the decrease in the weight complex.

Keywords: Metal complexes, Schiff bases, RSM.

17. Phytochemical investigation and spectrophotometric studies of Piperine and Thymoquinone compounds for Methanolic Extract of Nigella sativa and Piper nigram


Abstract:

This study was carried out on some spice samples including Nigella sativa and Piper nigram. Phytochemical screening was applied on the methanolic extraction of the both studied plants .The results showed that mathanolic extract of Nigella sativa and Piper nigram revealed the presence of various chemicals constituents, such as Alkaloide, Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Tanins, Flavones, Saponins etc. Piperine is characterizing compound present in fruits of piper nigram used as bioavailability enhancer. Some of spectrophotometric methods (UV) was used to identify the chemical structure of the studied compounds. Thymoquinone is a measure pungent ingredient of Nigella sativa, also has potent antioxidant activity. Present investigation characterized by UV. vis and IR spectroscopy.

Keywords: Piper, Nigram, Nigella sativa, Piperine, Thymoquinone, Spectrophotometric.

18. 316 L Stainless Steel Medical Implants Crack-Free BCP Coating through 30 second Electrophoretic Deposition

Abstract:

In the present study, Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was applied to obtain BCP coating on medical metal implants in ethanol at constant deposition voltages 20, 30 and 50 for 30 second. The medical grade 316L stainless steel substrates were 25×10×1.2 mm in dimension. After deposition surface of coatings before and after the sintering were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX). The results of this study revealed that among various voltages and temperatures during 30sec, which are used all the samples are crack-free, and by increasing applied voltage and temperature during EPD coating, roughness and thickness increases and leads to the formation of rough and thick coatings.

Keywords: Electrophoretic deposition (EPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX), BCP.

19. Effect of addition of some metal oxides i.e. Cuo, V2O3 and Cr2O3on amlodipine drug

Abstract:


This study was carried out on Amlodipine drug to evaluate the oxidative degradation using three different metal oxides i.e. copper oxide, vanadium oxide and chromium oxide. Also, study the effect of the addition of the three oxides on the values of λmax and the absorbance of Amlodipine. The drug solutions used were processed using different systems: CuO/ amlodipine, V2O5/amlodipine and Cr2O3 /amlodipine. All the systems at different times were analyzed using DU 800 spectrophotometer in the wavelength range (200-400 nm). The obtained results showed that three oxides exhibited the best oxidative degradation efficiency of Amlodipine. The results showed that the absorbanc values were decrease in the metals oxides samples in comparing tho the orginal solution of amlodipine.

Keywords: degradation, Amlodipine, metal oxides, λmax, absorbance.

20. Identification and Determination of nicotine in cigarettes and Tobacco sold in Libyan markets using various analytical methods

Abstract:


The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the concentrations of nicotine in sometobacco samples collected from local market in Libya using UV-Visible spectrophotometer and IR spectroscopy. The evaluation of the nicotine levels was carried out by means of a simple, rapid extraction methods which was developed and validated for this purpose using ether and methanol as solvents. The spectrophotometric method was valided over a wide linear range of 2-81 ppm with correlation coefficients being consistently greater than 0.999. The spectrophotometric measurements indicated that the range of the nicotine concentrations in the samples under study was from 16 ppm to 108 ppm, also the IR spectroscopy measurements indicated, that all studied samples contain different levels of nicotine.

Keywords: Cigarettes, Nicotine, Extraction, UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy.

21. Calculation of some corrosion indexes and their effects on the network of drinking water of Derna city

Abstract:


This study was basically designed to calculate some corrosion indexes. Also, the biofilm formation which affecting the corrosion of pipes was evaluated. For drinking water samples collected from Derna city, additionally to at least one water sample collected from the ultimate product of Derna city desalination plant. The Larson index values showed that the studied water samples including two sorts of corrosive and aggressive water for water pipes. Consistent with the Langelier saturation index values, most of the water samples are non-corrosive, apart from one sample collected from the desalination plant was slightly corrosive. The Ryzar stability index values showed that there are different indications for the effect of the studied water samples, where some samples are an important scale of aggressive, also some samples are heavy corrosion, whereas the others are a light-weight scale of aggressive. For the Puckorius scaling index, the foremost water samples aren't corrosive for the pipes consistent with this index.

Keywords: corrosion indexes, pipes, drinking water.

22. Evaluation of Activated Carbon Prepared from Treated Pine Cone for Adsorptive Removal of Total Organic Carbon from Laundry Aqueous using Batch Operations

Abstract:


Experimental realization was carried out using available activated carbon pine cone powder (ACPP) as alternative adsorbent for characterized and removal of total organic carbon (TOC) from laundry aqueous solutions, phosphoric acid as an activated factor and microwave as heating source. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to study the surface properties of the ACPP. Using microwave irradiation gives rise to decrease of operation time, savings and homogeneous heating of samples, as opposed to furnace heating. The effects of heat methods, H3PO4 concentration, microwave radiation power, microwave radiation time, temperature, initial TOC concentration, ACPP dosage, primary solution pH and soaking time were experimentally studied by batch method to estimate the adsorption capacity, kinetics and equilibrium. The chemical composition of ACPP before and after the modified form is discussed in relation to the XRD, FTIR, SEM and specific surface area results. The results showed that the surface and chemical composition of ACPP samples is modified by H3PO4 under microwave radiation is changed after modification. Experimental results showed that the highest removal efficiency and adsorption capacity for removal of TOC took place at basic pH and concentration of 20% of H3PO4. The TOC uptake process obeyed the pseudo-first-order kinetic expression and was best qualified by the Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic studies revealed that TOC adsorption on ACPP was exothermic and also spontaneous in nature. The results showed that pine cone could be used as a low-cost alternative for removal of TOC from laundry water.

Keywords: Pine cones; Laundry water; Total organic carbon; Adsorption; Alternative biomaterial.

23. Estimation of Tenoxicam in Tablets Dosage Form by using UV-Visible Spectrophotometry

Abstract:


A simple, accurate, sensitive and precise ultraviolet spectrophotometric method has been developed to determine the Tenoxicam content in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage formulations. The quantitative determination of the drug has been carried out at a predetermined λmax of 368.2 nm, it was proved linear in the range 2-12 mg/L and exhibited good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.999). This method was successfully applied to the determination of Tenoxicam content in three marketed brand the results were in good agreement with the label claims. The obtained results proved the method can be employed for the routine analysis of Tenoxicam in bulk as well as in the commercial formulations.

Keywords: Tenoxicam, spectrophotmetry, pharmaceutical analysis, tablets dosage form.

24. Preparation and characterization of some complexes obtained by reactions between glutamine and some metal ions (Fe3+, Cr3+ and Mn2+)


Abstract:

Some complexes were prepared by direct and modified reactions between glutamine with some metal ions including (Fe3+, Cr3+ and Mn2+). The obtained complexes were characterizing by some physical properties as melting point, electrical conducting and color beside the I.R spectra. Bacterial applications were carried out. Some of the prepared complexes gave inhabitation activity with the selected types of bacteria.


25. Seasonal Variability of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediment of Karaçomak River (Kastamonu), Turkey

Abstract:


In this study, Egith stations from KARAÇOMAK RIVER were chosen, sediment samples were taken to determine the seasonal heavy metal accumulation. Samples were digested through the proper analytical techniques and then Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were determined by using ICP-OES device. Sources of heavy metals pollution in KARAÇOMAK RIVER were determined as sewage, industrial effluent, fertilizers, herbicide and pesticide. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes in metal concentrations in river sediments depending on station and sampling period variation. It was observed that the mean sequence of the metal concentration per annum in the sediment were Mn> Cu> Zn> Ni>Pb> Cr. Seasonal highest values of heavy metals were observed as follows; Pb (0.389 µg/g) and Ni (0.646 µg/g) in summer, Cr (0.276 µg/g), Zn (0.921 µg/g), Mn (13.052µg/g) and Cu (1.818 µg/g) in winter.According to the reference values, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu contaminations in the river sediment have not reached the effective level.The findings of this study may be useful for further biomonitoring studies.

Keywords: Seasonal Variability, Karaçomak creek, heavy metal, sediment.


26. Polyacrylamide interaction with Acetate Bis (1, 10-phenanthrolin) Silver (I) in Solution: Drug binding model

Abstract:


In recent yearspolyelectrolytes have been introduced as a good model for DNA in order to investigate the structural behavior of this complex biopolymer. In this work the polyacrylamide (PAm) was presented as a good candidate for simulate the interaction between the DNA and anti-cancer drug, herein the Bis(1,10-phenanthroline) silver(I) complex (Ag–Phen) was introduced as a model drug. PAm polymer was synthesized in aqueous solution by using cerium (IV) as initiator, the polymerization reaction was monitored by measuring the decline absorbance of Ce (IV) as a function of reaction time. Despite the PAm yield was low (8%), but high weight average molecular weight was produced (MW = 3333 g/mol). It was also observed that the PAm has a low critical solution temperature (LCST) of 35 oC, while no LCST was noticed for the acrylamide monomer, which evidencing that the monomer was successfully converted to polymer since LCST is only characterized for polymers. LCST of PAm was quite close to the physiological temperature which enhance our hypothesis of introducing polyacrylamide as a typical model for biopolymers. The Ag-Phen was successfully synthesized with yield of 55 %. Complex spectra displayed a characteristic new shoulder at 285 nm beside a peak at 275 nm comparing with free ligand. The maximum absorbance of Ag–Phen-PAm showed a shift from 275 nm to 282 nm upon adding polymer. The shape of absorption spectra also changed when the PAm was added to the solution of complex. This suggested that a binding between the polymer and model drug has occurred.

Keywords: Bis (1, 10-phenanthroline) silver (I), Polyacrylamide, Ultraviolet, Molecular Weight, Lower critical solution temperature.

27. Estimate the chemical structure of some marine sediment and rock samples collected from the area extended between Derna coast city and Ras El Hilal region, (Libya) by using X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) microscope scanning

Abstract:

The XRF (X ray fluorescence) technique was used to identification and estimate the composition of the marine sediments and rock samples. Where sixteen samples were collected from different locations at the extended between Derna coast and Ras Al–Helal regions (Libya). The types and contents of the rocks constituents were determined. The results stated that the marine rock samples containing the following compounds: some types of oxides including: (NaO, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, SO3, CaO & CaCO3, Fe2O3, MnO and TiO2) and their contents were fluctuated from station to station according to the presence of different percentage of the compounds. Generally, the results showed that the contents of metal oxides in the rock samples contain high levels for calcium carbonate (CaCO3). While the metal oxides of rock samples recorded different contents of (NaO, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, SO3, CaO and Fe2O3). Mostly the trend distribution of oxides at most locations is in order of: CaCO3 >> CaO >> MgO > Al2O3 > SiO2 > other oxides.

Keywords: Sediment - Rock samples , Derna coast , XRF analysis.

28. Total phenolic, chlorophyll, caroteniod, tocopherol contents, oxidative, stability and phenolic compounds of some virgin olive oil cultivars in Eastern north of Libya

Abstract:

Virgin olive oil is a typical components of the Mediterranean diet, consumed unrefined and rich in important molecules, such as minor polar compounds (hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, secoiridoids and flavonoids) and fatty acids. These molecules not only influence the sensorial properties of both olives and virgin oil but they are also important for biodiversity and quality determination of this product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the minor compounds (total phenols, chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherol contents, oxidative stability and phenolic compounds) in the virgin olive oil samples of four regions from north eastern of Libya namely, El-Bieda, Shahat, El-Abiar and Benghazi. The virgin olive oil samples from El-Bieda region gave the highest value of all minor compounds, the virgin olive oil from Benghazi region had the lowest value of the same parameters except chlorophyll content in Benghazi region which was bigger than El-Abiar region. Whilethe same samples from Benghazi gave the lowest value for all parameters, except the oxidative stability whichwere equal with El-Abiar region. The order of phenolic compounds was Oleuropienaglycon ˃ ligosterosideaglycon ˃ tyrosol ˃ pinorsinol ˃ hydroxytyrosol ˃ elenoic acid ˃ caffiec acid ˃ vanillic acid ˃ apigenin. Oleuropienaglycon were the highest phenolic compounds followed by ligosterosideaglycon, while apigenin was the lowest phenolic compounds in all samples.

Key words: virgin olive oil, El-Bieda, Shahat, El-Abiar and Benghazi.

29. Molecular Modeling Analysis of Atorvastatin Drug Enantiomers

Abstract:

In this work, Atorvastatin, one of the most selling drugs in the world for cardiovascular disease, was studied theoretically.Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out on the four optical enantiomers (SS, SR, RS, RR) of Atorvastatin drug at B3LYP/6-31+G* level in the gas phase. The spectroscopic profiling (1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts) were compared with the available experimentaldata.Frontier molecular orbital (FMO), thermodynamic properties, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), total density of states (DOS) of the four enantiomers were reported, investigated. EHOMO, ELUMO and HOMO-LUMO energy gap (Eg; Δ), Electron affinity (A), Ionization Potential (I), the electronic chemical potential (μ), chemical hardness (η), and electrophilicity (ω) also obtained. The four enantiomers were dockedinto HMG-CoA reductase active site; their interactions and binding energies were reported and analyzed.

Keyword: Atorvastatin, DFT, Docking, electronic descriptors

30. Date Palm Trees as Renewable Materials for Wood plastic composites

Abstract:

Date palm fiber (DPF) is one of the most available natural fibers. DPF is one of the waste materials in cultivation sector, which is widely grown in Libya as well as Africa.The development and production of fiber composites using agricultural and plastic wastes are promising solutions for recycling the waste and utilization of such waste as renewable sources for beneficial use. There are there parts of date palm that are used for producing fiber, the trunk, rachis and petiole. Date palm leave can be used as Wood–plastic composites (WPC). The chemical composition of various parts of the date palm tree differed significantly, with the highest amounts of cellulose and lignin content belong to rachis. Wood–plastic composites (WPC) are a new group of materials generating interest in different parts of the world because they can divert recyclable wood and plastics from the landfill into durable building applications, additional environmental benefits could be obtained if the composites themselves are recycled at the end of their useful life. Veal pretreated wood plastic composites mixtures, using a 1:1 ratio of palm leaves and plastic waste, were designed and developed namely, polycarbonate (PC-mix), polystyrene (PS-mix), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC-mix). The aim of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of using the DPF as wood plastic polymer.

Keywords: Date Palm tree; Polymer; Wood; Fiber; Composites; Plastic wastes.


31. Kinetic and mechanism of periodate oxidation of ternary nitrilotriacetatocobalt (II) complexes involving malonic acid as secondary ligand

Abstract:

Kinetic of oxidation of [Co(II)(NTA)(M)(H2O)]3-(NTA = nitrilotriacetate and M = malonic acid) by periodate in aqueous medium has been studied spectrophotometrically under pseudo-first-order conditions[IO4-] >>[complex].between 20.0 and 40.0 C. The kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of ternary Co(II) complexes involving NTA-Co(II), malonic acid by periodateas oxidizing agent was investigated. This mechanism was supported by the observation that IO4- ion is capable of acting as a ligand. The oxidation of [Co(II)(NTA)(M)(H2O)]3- by IO4- may proceed via one or two electron-transfer in the rate determining step. The rate of the reaction was found increases with the increase of pH. The reaction is independent on the ionic strength. Acommon mechanism for the oxidation of Co(II) complexes by periodate is proposed and this is supported by an excellent isokinetic relationship between DH* and DS* values for these reactions.

Keywords: Nitrilotriacetic acid, Cobalt complexes, periodate, malonic acid, kinetics.

32. Synthesis, physical properties, Infrared (IR) analysis and anti-fungi activity of some Valine and metal ion Complexes


Abstract:

Some of metal complexes were prepared by direct reaction between (Valine) with some metal ions including (lead, Manganese, Cadmium, Ferrous, Ferric, Nickel, Zinc, Copper and Chromium). The identification of the complexes structure was carried by using IR and some physical properties (color, conductivity and Melting point). Antifungal applications of the prepared complexes were used on some types of fungi including (Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Fuzarium). The results showed that there are strong effect for some complexes on the fungi types which selected in this study and depended up the concentrations of the complexes.

Keywords: Physical properties, I.R, anti-fungi, Valine complexes.

33. Effect the addition of the drinking tea and UV irradiation on the wave and length and Absorbance on Hypertension Drug (CONCOR)

Abstract:

This study was carried out on hypertension drug including concor drug by used some factors as irradiation periods, and addition of tea volumes and their affects on the absorbance and λ max values showed that: The absorbance and λ max values of the selective λ max solutions were chanced in most solutions. Where the UV radiation gave different values at different irradiation periods, most of solution gave low vales of absorbance comparing with the original standard solutions of drug and the λ max were changed. The study attributed those changes in absorbance are due to the effecting to UV irradiations. The study also recorded that, most of selected solvents were affected on the absorbance and λ max values for the studied drug.

Keywords: Concor drug, UV radiation, Temperature, Tea.

34. IR spectroscopic investigation and X-Ray Structural characterization for some soil samples collected from Alkufra regions (Libya)

Abstract:

Alkufra city (Libya) is richly endowed with huge solid mineral deposits; there are need therefore, to identify the different types of the minerals in the soil samples of Alkufra region, also, to assess their quality by determining their elemental compositions. The types and their contents of minerals in soils of Al Jawf local area of Alkufra city in Libya were studied. Five different soil samples were collected from the studied areas and the elemental composition was determined by using the IR spectroscopic investigation and SEM/EDS techniques. From the IR absorption bands and the locations of the different peaks, the minerals were identified with the available literature. In addition to the band positions, the sharpness of bands was helpful in the identification of mineral components. The SEM/EDS analysis showed the soil samples have different elements such as C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, S, Cl, Ca and Fe .The SEM/EDS analysis confirmed the presence O, Si and Ca in all soil samples.

Key words: I.R., SEM/EDS, analysis, Alkufra, soil.

35. Study the chemical structure of sediment samples collected from the marine coast at the eastern north side of Libya (Tobrouk) area

Abstract:

Eight different marine sediment samples were collected from nearshore locations at some of areas around Tobrouk city (Eastern north) cost of Libya . This study aimed to identification the chemical structure of the studied samples. The results recoded that the studied samples containing high contents of calcite and/ or mixing with calcium oxide , also high contents of Mg was recorded in the samples .Many of metal oxides were detected as SiO2 , Al2O3 , Fe2O3 , CuO , Na2O MgO , SO3,, CaO and MnO . The results indicated that the studied samples have the similar chemical composition with small variation in their contents .

Key words : Chemical structure , marine sediments , Tobrouk coast.

36. Estimate the Organic Matter and some Heavy Metal Contents in some Solid Waste Samples Collected from some Locations inside Al-Bayda City (Libya)

Abstract:

This study was carried out on some spice samples including Nigella sativa and Piper nigram. Phytochemical screening was applied on the methanolic extraction of the both studied plants .The results showed that mathanolic extract of Nigella sativa and Piper nigram revealed the presence of various chemicals constituents, such as Alkaloide, Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Tanins, Flavones, Saponins etc. Piperine is characterizing compound present in fruits of piper nigram used as bioavailability enhancer. Some of spectrophotometric methods (UV) was used to identify the chemical structure of the studied compounds. Thymoquinone is a measure pungent ingredient of Nigella sativa, also has potent antioxidant activity. Present investigation characterized by UV. vis and IR spectroscopy.

Keywords: Piper, Nigram, Nigella sativa, Piperine, Thymoquinone, Spectrophotometric.

37. Simultaneous Determination of the residual of Cortisone and Prednselone in Children Blood Samples of renal patients by Spectrophotometric method

Abstract:

Cortisone, a glucocorticoid, and epinephrine (adrenaline) are the main substances released by the body as a reaction to stress. They elevate blood pressure and prepare the body for a fight or flight response. A cortisone injection can also be used to give short-term pain relief and reduce the swelling from inflammation of a joint, tendon, or bursa in, for example, the joints of the knee, elbow, and shoulder and into a broken coccyx. Cortisone may also be used to deliberately suppress immune response in persons with autoimmune diseases or following an organ transplant to prevent transplant rejection. This study was basically designed to estimate the residual of cortisone and predenselone in some children blood samples collected from El-Beida city hospital (Libya) for some patients of renal disease .Also the results were compared with control blood samples of normal patients. The results indicated that the selected drugs were recorded high values in the treated patients comparing with the control samples.

38. Effect of solvents on the electronic spectra of the amino acid (glycin)

Abstract:

The effects of some solvents (Ethanol ,Methanol, DMSO and Water) on the U.V spectra were studied by used spectrophotometer from the wave length ranges (190 – 800 nm).The results showed that most of the absorptions were occurred in the U.V region, and that main electronic transitions are related to n –π*, π – π*. Also the results showed that there is effect of the studied solvents on the λ max of the amino acids.

Keywords: Glycine , Solvents effect(DMSO, ethanol, methanol and water)


39. Variation in thyroid hormone levels among children in Benghazi city- Libya

Abstract:

Thyroid hormones play a vital part in development, of metabolism, nervous system myelination, and organ functions. Thyroid complaints can be tough to identify clinically, but thyroid function tests can assist in making a diagnosis. Evaluating thyroid stimulating hormone is the major step. If it is abnormal, free thyroxin should be measured. An elevated concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone with a low concentration of free thyroxin suggests hypothyroidism. A low concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone with a great concentration of free thyroxin suggests hyperthyroidism. A cross sectional study was done in children attending to Pediatric hospital- Benghazi for one year from January 2018 to December 2018. Total of 221 children, 94 (43%) were males and 127 (57%) were females attending the hospital for thyroid hormone test were included in the study. Secondary data on gender, TSH, T3 and T4 level were analyzed. Thyroid diseases reported was found to be more prevalent in females than males. T4 was higher in females than males by percentage 8 (4%) to 5 (2%) respectively. TSH was also has a higher rate recorded in females than males by percentage 38 (17%) to 28 (13%) respectively. It can be concluded from the present study that the gender has a significant effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. Initial analysis and treatment are important to avoid irreparable and enduring nervous system injury and progressive interruption, specifically in newborns as they are very in danger to thyroid dysfunction.

Keywords: Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, children hospital, Benghazi.

40. The Effect of Potassium Bromate on Testosterone Hormone in Rat's and Protective Role of Ruta chalepensis Oil Extract

Abstract:

Potassium bromate (KBrO3), a member of the bromides group, is used in the maturation process of flour because of its oxidizing properties and has been used as a dough conditioner in the bread-making process for over 50 years. Ruta chalepensis L. (R. chalepensis) (Rue) is used in the traditional medicine for treatment of variable diseases.The present study aimed to investigate the protective and curative effects of Rueoil extract against KBrO3 toxicity on testis of male rats. Fifty male albino rats divided into five groups. The first group served as a control group. The second group was administered Rue at an oral daily dose of 0.5 g/Animal for four weeks. The third group received KBrO3 100 mg/kg/b. w. for four weeks. The fourth group (protective group) was initially administered Ruealone for 2 weeks and followed by KBrO3 in association with Rue for 2 weeks. The fifth group (therapeutic group) was first given KBrO3 alone for 2 weeks and was then administered Rue in association with KBrO3 for 2 weeks.At the end of 2nd and 4th weeks of treatment, the determination of body weight, testis weightand relative testis weight and serum testosterone levels measured. The results of the present study showed no changes in the mean body weight, testis weight and relative testis weight among control and all treated groups of rats after 2 and 4 weeks. No changes in Rue and protective groups for 2 weeks, but KBrO3 and therapeutic groups, showed a highly significant decrease in testosterone's level when compared with control group at 2 weeks. Therefore, after 4 weeks non-significant decrease in the serum testosterone levels in Rue and KBrO3 groups, while, a highly significant decrease in protective group, non-significant elevation in therapeutic group when compared with control at 4 weeks.It may be conclude from the results that the Rue at the tested dose is not beneficial as protective and curative agent.

Keywords: Rat, Potassium Bromate, Ruta chalepensis,Testis, Body weight, Testis weight, Relative testis weight, testosterone.

41. Histological and physiological changes in kidney tissues induced by ethanoic acid in albino rats

Abstract:

Ethanoic acid (EA) is a widely used organic acid with corrosive properties. A small amount of its concentration may cause serious poisoning with a fatal outcome. This study aimed to investigate the histological and physiological changes on kidney tissues induced by EA in female albino rats. Thirty female rats were used, they were divided into three groups, one group serves as control group and the other groups were administered the EA as follows: Treated group (1); animals received EA (1 ml/ kg/ day) with concentration of 5 % and treated group (2); animals received EA (1 ml/ kg/ day) with concentration of 10 % orally by gavage for fourteen days. The mean values of creatinine observed in treated animals do not differ significantly from the corresponding values observed in controls. Whereas, the results showed a significant increase in urea levels in rats that received EA-10% as compared to EA-5 % rats and control rats. Histological observations in kidney tissues showed degeneration of renal glomerulus with widening of Bowman’s space, hyalinization of glomerular tuft and tubular basement membrane degeneration in glomerulus, indicating dilated tubule in EA-5% rats. Moreover, the EA-10% groups showed degenerative lesions in glomerulus with lymphocytic infiltration cells, severe dilatation and vascular congestion with clogging of RBCs. In conclusion, ethanoic acid consumption have adverse effects on renal function in rats, hence quantity of ethanoic acid should be discouraged or reduced in making of meals.

Key words: Histological, Physiological, Kidney, Ethanoic Acid, Rat.

42. A Study on the helminthes parasites infecting Moray eel (Muraena helena) (Linnaeus, 1758) from Benghazi Coast, Libya

Abstract:

One hundred and twenty of M. helena were collected from the coast of Benghazi The results revealed that, 114 of M. helena were found infected with nematodes. Three species of nematode sp. these nematodes from body cavity, liver, stomach, and intestinal highest infection Anisakis sp. Larva (96.49 %), Cucullanus sp. (57.02 %), nematode sp. (26.32 %). Anisakis sp. larva were recovered from body cavity and liver, Cucullanus sp. were from stomach, intestine and rectum and nematode sp. recovered from body cavity. The incidence rate of infection was recorded in body cavity (47.28 %), liver (16.33 %), anterior (13.95 %), intestine (9.86 %), stomach (6.46 %) and rectum (6.12 %). Forty one (35.96.0 %) had single infection, 73 (64.03 %) had mixed infection. Significant differences between incidence and sex of M. helena (p ˂0.05). The prevalence of nematode infections with the female (96.92 %) showing a slightly higher prevalence than the males (92.72 %). Significant differences were not discernible between body weight and incidence of infection in total infected M. helena (P = 0.321).

Keywords: helminthe parasites, Muraenahelena, Benghazi, Libya.

43. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Among Pregnant Women in Tobruk City, Libya

Abstract:

Detection of anti- Toxoplasma immunoglobulin IgM and IgG is essential for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women. The current study is one of the prime investigations to evaluate the prevalence rate of T. gondii among pregnant women in Tobruk city. Serum samples of 500 pregnant women aged 17 to >45 years attending the Tobruk maternity hospital were tested for anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serological results, reflecting T. gondii prevalence rate, were statistically analyzed and linked to some epidemiological data collected through a standard questionnaire. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 40.2 %, whereas IgM seropositivity was 20.8 %. The highest IgG seroprevalence among participants aged 26 to 35 years was 49.9 %, while for IgM at 35 >45 was 24.1 %. The result showed that high infection rate was detected in pregnant women who had contact with cats. 23 (59.0 %) were positive for IgG and 28 (71.8 %) were positive for IgM. The results revealed the prevalence rate with distorted embryo was 66.7 % and without distortion was 39.7 %. On the other hand, seropositivity of T. gondii IgM antibodies assiosated with distorted embryo was 55.6% and without distortion was 20.2 %. The seropositivity of IgG among pregnant women from Tobruk city was 44.4 %. while those among pregnant women out of Tobruk city. The current study indicates that there is a considerable rate of Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women from Tobruk city and the surrounding areas.

Keywords: Toxoplasma, Pregnant women, IgM, IgG, ELISA, Tobruk, Libya.

44. A study on the prevalence of thyroid disorders among males and females in Libyan population

Abstract:

It has been noted recently that females are the most affected gender with thyroid disorders since they contribute to the infertility, sex hormone imbalance and hyperprolactinemia. Other investigators have reported that both genders could be affected equally, therefore the study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of thyroid disorders between both genders in different age groups in EL-Beyda-Libya. The study was conducted on 515 serum samples collected from different genders and age groups. They were analyzed by ELISA to measure thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Our study was found that the overall prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 24% (n=121) including hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. While 493 of subjects were euthyroid. Based on dividing the disorders into subclinical and overt type, 94.4% and 5.6% had subclinical hypothyroidism in females and males, respectively, while overt hypothyroidism appeared with 77.8% in females and 22.2% in males. Subclinical hyperthyroidism presented in females and males with 79.4% and 20.6%, respectively. Regarding the mean values there was a significant difference between values of TSH and T4 of the normal subjects with hypothyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. While T3 value showed no differences in both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid with normal persons. We can speculate that thyroid diseases are more frequent in females group than males with majority being subclinical than overt type.

Key words: Thyroid, TSH, T4, T3, subclinical hypothyroidism, Overt Hyperthyroidism.

45. Soursop (Annona muricata L.) suppress carbon tetra chloride toxicity through alleviating hormonal disturbances in adult male rabbits

Abstract:

Annona muricata. L has many of medicinal properties and has been used widely in traditional medicine for treatment various disorders. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is rapidly absorbed by any route of exposure in humans and animals. Once absorbed, it is widely distributed among tissues, especially those with high lipid content, reaching peak concentrations in <1–6 hours, depending on exposure concentration or dose. It is metabolized by the liver, lung, and other tissues. This study was designed to investigate the adverse effects of CCL4 on some plasma hormones such as testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin hormone (T4), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in male New-Zealand white rabbits. Additionally, the study was extended to show the protective effect of Annona muricata. L against CCL4 toxicity. The obtained results showed that the CCL4 significantly decreased activity of testosterone, T3and T4 and caused increases in the levels of FSH and LH in plasma. However, the administration of Annona muricata caused marked improvement through a significant increase in testosterone, T3 and T4, at same time it caused a decrease in the levels of FSH and LH in plasma. So it can be concluded that the presence of Annona muricata with CCL4 counteracted the negative effects of CCL4 on hormonal pattern in rabbit.

Keywords: Annona muricata, Carbon tetrachloride, testosterone, New Zealand white rabbits .

46. A pandemic Vitamin D Deficiency in Al kufra, Libya

Abstract:

One of the problems around the world is vitamin D deficiency (VDD).It is worth noting that many studies indicate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the sunny regions, including Libya, and has been linked to many diseases.To know the extent of the deficiency and to educate people about the many health risks and problems that are caused by the deficiency. To measure vitamin D in people with different symptoms or pain by assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was analysed using a fluorescence Immunoassay (FIA).A cross-sectional sample of Over 1000 cases subjects who were attending all polyclinics in Kufra Between males and females of all ages. This study should be extended to measure vitamin D level among different ages and sexes in all main cities within the country. It is noticed that the age of ten years of those who hesitate to conduct the analysis is a vitamin D deficiency, as the number of male children was more frequent than the number of females in addition to the large numbers that perform the analysis in the city of Al Kufra, and that a large percentage of them are women especially in the age of 20 to 40, that is, the period of changing hormones for women.The results of the study showed that of 83% women were more than men 17% during the study months of 2018.The situation calls for multi-sectoral actions and public health initiatives to address dietary and lifestyle habits.

Keywords: Vitamin D25(OH); pandemic; Al kufra;Libya.

47. Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Liver of Male Mice: Histological Studies

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has gained a great deal of public interest due to increasing applications of nanomaterials in many areas of human endeavors such as industry, agriculture, business, medicine, public health etc.Therefore, it is necessary to understand and evaluate the potential toxic effects of Nano-ZnO in order to avoid their adverse effects on biological system and human health.In the present work, we selected five animal groups of male mice (n=10). I. Control group,II.Group mice was injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg bw(low dose) of the prepared ZnONps. III.Group mice was injected intraperitoneally with 500 mg/kg bw (high dose) of the prepared ZnONps. IV.Group mice was injected intraperitoneally with the ionic zinc sulfate at a concentration of 100 mg/kg bw. V.Group mice was injected intraperitoneally with the ionic zinc sulfate at a concentration of 500 mg/kg bw, day by day for 30 days. Exposed to ZnONPs (100–500 mg/kg bw) showed increases of AST, ALT, ALP and MDA level in serum of those treated animals, and TAC level was highly significantly decreased. Therefore, it can be concluded that ZnONPs had the potency the cytotoxicity. The toxic effects of ZnONPs are due to their solubility, resulting in increased intracellular Zn2+.In the current study, the cytotoxicity of ZnONPs was evidenced by the appearance of morphological changes in liver cells. This liver damage was revealed by the histopathological examination which showed hepatocellular necrosis. However, the decrease in these degenerative changes in the liver of mice was apparent in the liver tissues of mice treated with different concentrations of zinc sulfate.

Key words: Nanotechnology, Cytotoxicity, AST, ALT, Histopathology.

48. Cytogenetic analysis and clinical Profile of Down Syndrome at Aljala Hospital, Libya

Abstract:

The most commonly cause of Down syndrome (DS) is cytogenetic abnormal numbers of chromosomal that lead to trisomy 21 by extra copies of genes on chromosome 21, Robertsonian translocation or mosaicism, its incidence between 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 1,100 live births worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate DS live births at Aljala Hospital during 2019, determine cytogenetic pattern, and comorbidity clinical profiles. This study followed a quantitative descriptive approach design. collected data from the information was recorded on 200 patients who were confirmed as DS at Aljala Hospital. Out of the 200 (108 males and 92 females; M:F ratio 1.2:1) DS cases studied; The cytogenetic analysis showed that free trisomy (non-disjunction) in 106 cases (53%), while 92cases (46%) had translocation, and mosaics 2 (1%). CNS abnormalities (central hypotonia) were detected in 80 (61,07%) cases. Congenital heart disease was found in 25 (19.8%) cases. Hypothyroidism was present in 25 (19.8%) cases. The half (50%) of mosaic cases have congenital heart disease more than non-disjunction (14.2%) and translocation (9.8%) cases, compared to central hypotonia is significantly more common in (40.6%) non-disjunction and (40.2%) translocation cases followed by hypothyroidism in (15.2%) translocation and (10.4%) non-disjunction cases, whereas urological problems in (1.1%) translocation cases. The mean of maternal age at birth of all cases with non-disjunction is (37.38 years) older than those of translocation (36.84 years) and mosaic (35 years). The identification of the karyotype of DS with a wide-scale national community-based survey should be undertaken to help the genetic counseling of parents to estimate the size of the problem and how management.

Key words: Down syndrome, Trisomy, Translocation, Mosaic, Hyotonia, Hypothyroidism, Congenital heart disease.

49. Evaluation of some chemical and microbial pollutants in the network of water supply of drink in Benghazi

Abstract:

Water is the most important vital element among the natural resources and it is the critical for survival of all living organisms including, humans and animals; it is necessity for food production, and economic development as well. The study aims to assess some chemical and bacteriological pollutants in the samples of drinking water. This is analytical study focusing on assessment of the quality of drinking water in nine randomly selected sites in Benghazi, Libya (20 street, Salmany, Boudozera, Alkeesh, Alkuyafeia, Beloun, Majory, Alzay, and Alethy). The nine samples made the size of the study. One sample was taken from Boudozera and another from Alkuafeia (well water sources) while 7 samples were taken from other sites. (public network of drinking water). Biological results have shown that well samples polluted with coli-form and streptococcus. On the other hand, chemical results of total dissolved solids, conductivity, total hardness have exceeded the maximum standard levels of World Health Organization (1200 mg/l, 1500 ms and 500 mg/l) respectively, while temperature and PH in all samples in both wells and public network fell within the maximum standard levels of World Health Organization.


Key words: assessment of water, quality of water, drinking water.


50. Role of Medicinal Plants in Detoxification of Heavy Metals from Human Systems in Polluted Environments

Abstract:

The main objective of the present study was to recommend specific medicinal plants or formula as food supplement in polluted rural human societies to minimize the harmful effect of the prevailing heavy metals. To accomplish this idea, the concentration of the different heavy metals in Abu Qir, Amreyya and Abis districts was experimentally determined and the different methods by which these metals were introduced to the body system was recognized via open-ended questioner. Herbal formulas were prepared specifically for each district based on the type of heavy metal and their concentrations. Data explored that there are many ways by which heavy metals can be introduced into the body such as consumption of foods, beverages, skin exposure and the inhaled air. Heavy metals upset metabolic functions in two ways: 1) they accumulate and thereby disrupt function in vital organs and glands such as heart, brain, kidneys, bone, liver and others; 2) they displace the vital nutritional minerals from their original place, thus hindering their biological function. Some of these symptoms were recorded among the inhabitants of the studied districts. Several medicinal plants such as Arctiumlappa, Urticadioica, Plantagopsyllium, Silybummarianum, Zingbarofficinalis and Olea europaea have evolved detoxification mechanisms (phytochelatins), mainly based on chelation and subcellular compartmentalization. The study recommends initiation of health care specific programs for the human living in polluted districts as a part of a sustainable development plan to save endangered rural communities.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Medicinal plants, Phytochelatins, Rural communities, Sustainability.


51. Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediment, algae and fish from Al-haniyaha region, Libya


Abstract:

Some organochlorine pesticide residues in fish, algae and sediment samples collected from Al-haniyaha region in Libya were determined to estimate the pesticide contamination and their accumulation in the studied samples. The results recorded that eight different OC pesticides were detected including the following types: HCH, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlo-Epoxide, Endosulfane 1, Beta endosulfan and p, p-DDT. The extracted residues were analyzed Liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC-ECD for the determination of these compounds. The results also recorded that the total concentration of OCPs in the studied sediment samples were ranged from 0.341 ng/g to 0.851 ng/g. While the concentrations of OCPs residues in Algae samples were ranged from 0.181 to 0.913 ng/g. Whereas the concentrations of OCPs in the different species of fish samples were ranged from 0.211 to 8.59 ng/g. In conclusion the results recorded that the all the fish samples containing the highest concentrations of organochlorine pesticides.


52. The effect of hand hygiene on Nasal Carriage of MRSA among Health Care Workers in Benghazi Hospitals

Abstract:

It has been more than a century since discovery that healthcare workers’ hands could potentially transmit infections to patients. We purpose of this study is to assessed relationship between hand hygienecompliance and nasal carriage of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among health care workers in Benghazi hospitals. In this study, two main tools were used: the questionnaire, nasal swabs from the health care workers (HCWs) (Nurses, and Physicians). The healthcare workers questionnaire includes questions pertaining to hand hygiene habits (if had healthcare workers on good knowledge of hand hygiene guidelines and compliance with hand hygiene guidelines). Nasal swabs were examined for the presence ofMRSA.All isolates were identified by conventional methods and the Phoenix system (BD). This study did not demonstrate any significant difference in MRSA carriage between HCWs who frequently wash hands and those who rarely do so after handling patients, with a statistically no significant difference (P>0.05). In conclusion, this calls for the need to assess handwashing practices among HCWs in Benghazi hospitals.

Keywords: Hand hygiene, MRSA, MSSA, HAIs, HCWs.


53. Inhibitory activity of metabolites produced by different Lactobacillus plantarum strains against pathogens

Abstract:


This study was conducted to determine the inhibitory activities of metabolites produced by various strains of Lactobacillus plantarum grown in reconstituted medium.By using reconstituted medium, three strains of L. plantarum (RI11, UL4, and RS5) were used to produce the metabolites. Modified inhibitory activity (MAU/mL) of metabolites and control group (Oxytetracycline) was applied by agar well diffusion assay.The strain of RS5 had significantly higher OD600 nm and lower pH value compared with RI11 and UL4. Nevertheless, the final values were not significantly different (P>0.05) between the RI11 and UL4 strains. Overall, the inhibitory activity was not significantly different between the metabolites. All of the metabolites in the treatment groups (RI11, UL4and RS5) had significantly higher (P<0.05) MAU/mL compared with the control group (antibiotic). However, RI11, UL4, and RS5 showed no significant differences against Escherichia coli and L. monocytogenes. In comparison to other treatments,the antibiotic group had higher VRE inhibitory activity, although no significant difference was recorded amongst the metabolites groups (RI11, UL4and RS5).Lower pH seems to be common in the strains with higher optical densities, which relates to optimized inhibitory activity against indicator organisms. The findings show that the growth of bacterial pathogens is inhibited by metabolites produced by strains of L. plantarumcompared with an antibiotic.

Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum, metabolites, modified inhibitory activity.

54. Prevelance of Tinea capitis and corporis in Benghazi

Abstract:


Tinea Corporis and Capitis are a superficial dermatophyte infection. Tinea Capitis is a dermatophyte infection of the scalp, it is found in children under the age of 12 years. Tinea Corporis is a supficial dermatophyte infection characterized by inflammatory or noninflammatory lesions on the glabrous skin (skin regions except the scalp, groin, palms ,and soles ) ,often affects children and adults who live in hot ,humid climates. Our objective in this study to obtain information on the prevalence of tinea Capitis and Corporis in Benghazi – Libya. Also to isolate and identify of the etiological agents involved in these infection. A prospective study, was carried out over a period of 8 months (April 2008 – November 2008 ,including two hundred patients with different ages, gender of clinically suspected cases with tinea Capitis and Corporis, attending the mycology laboratory, Dermatology Department, Jamahiriya hospital, Benghazi –Libya. Specimens were obtained from scales ,hairs and skin. out of 200 patients who infections,113 (56.5 %)were male and 87 (43.5 %)were female. Out of these, 117children (65 male and52 Female) were provisionally diagnosed with tinea capitis and corporis. The youngest patient was a 5 months old infant, whereas the eldest patient a 71 year old man. Greater number of positive cases of dermatophytes in children under the age of 15year. Tinea capitis was the predominant in 31 (57.4 %) children ,whiletinea corporis were 8 (14.8 %) children.125 (62.5 %),were found to be positive by direct microscopic examination only,while 50 (25 %) by culture only and 45 (22.5 %) positive by both techniques.

55. Microbial etiology of community acquired pneumonia among infants and children Admitted to the pediatric clinics at BMC hospital

Abstract:


It is important to recognize the etiology of community acquired pneumonia to formulate local antimicrobial guidelines; limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community acquired pneumonia among immunocompetentLibyan infants and preschool children. Ninety infants and preschool age children admitted to BMC hospital with community acquiredpneumonia were prospectively included in the study. Etiological agents were identified using conventional bacteriological identification methods and IgMantibodies detection against common atypical respiratory bacteria and viruses. An etiology was identified in 59 patients (65.5%). Bacterial pathogens were detected in 43 (47.8%) of the cases while viral pathogens were detected in 23 (25.5 %). Coinfection with more than one etiologic agent was evident in seven patients (7.8 %). The most common typical bacterial cause of pneumonia was Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12, 13.3%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiellapneumoniae (n = 7, 7.8%, each). The commonest atypical bacterium was Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 10, 11.1%), whereas the commonest viral etiology was influenza viruses (n = 11, 12.2 %).

56. Isolation and Identifection of Bacteria Assiciated with Wound and Soft Skin Sepsise at Benghazi Area

Abstract:


The human skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) caused by microbial pathogens during or after trauma, burn injuries, and surgical procedures result in the production of pus, a white to yellow fluid comprised of dead WBCs, cellular debris, and necrotic tissues.To treat the infection, we must know the type of bacteria causing anddeterminate its sensitivity to antibiotics. The purpose of the present study was to see the frequency and distribution of bacteria isolated from pus and sensitivity pattern to most common antibiotic used.Pus swab sample received to microbiology Lab in AL -Saleem Medical laboratory for a period of one year (fromJanuary to December 2019). The pus swab samples received were collected from the patients from different hospitals or clinic in Benghazi area with skin and soft tissue infection or post-operative infection. Bacteria were detected by culture and identification by biochemical test and antibiotic susceptibility test done by disc diffusion method. A total number of 245 swab from patients presented with wound infection or pus were recruited for this study. patients were in age range from 1month to 85 years.206 cases were positive culture. Interestingly male was predominant than female which was 111 (53.8%) and 95(46.2%) cases respectively. Isolated bacteria were S.aureus, K.pneumoniae, A.baumanii, P.aeruginos, p. mirabilis and E. coli. The most common isolated bacteria after aerobic culture of wound and pus is the Staphylococcus aureus (54.3%)followed by Klebsiella. pneumoniae 24 (11.6%).

Kay ward: Pyogenic bacteria, wound infection, pus, sensitivity test, MDR, MRSA.

57. Urinary Tract Infection in Diabetic Patients; Causative Bacteria and Antibiotic Sensitivity

Abstract:


The incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is common in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The microorganisms causing UTI vary in their susceptibility to antimicrobials. The study aims to determine the spectrum of uropathogens and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients UTI. The study population included 200 diabetic and 100 non-diabetics, at Diabetes disease Clinic in Benghazi, from April - June 2016. All samples were investigated and isolates by standard laboratory procedures. A total of 75 (25%) samples showed significant growth. Significant difference among culture positivity rate was noted between diabetic and non-diabetic patients (26.5% Vs 22 %). Escherichia coli was the most frequent gram-negative organism (53% in diabetic and 33.3% non-diabetic) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.8% in diabetic and 13.3% in non-diabetic). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent gram positive bacteria (68% in diabetic and 42.8% non diabetic) followed by Streptococcus epidermidis (15.8% in diabetic and 14.3% in non diabetic). Imipenem, Amikacin, levofloxacin, Gentamycin were highly sensitive to bacteria isolated in diabetic patients among the tested antimicrobials followed by Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin. Least sensitivity rate was observed with Augmentin, Nitrofurantion. Escherichia coli was the most frequent uropathogen. multidrug-resistant bacteria MDR was detected in diabetic and non-diabetic patient but resistance are more in diabetes patients than non-diabetes patients.

Keywords: Antibiotic Susceptibility Test, Diabetes mellitus, Urinary Tract Infection.

58. Bacterial Post-operative Wound Infections in Caesarean Sections and Gynaecology in Jomhoriya Hospital-Benghazi

Abstract:


Theprimary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacteria in post-operative wound infection and its sensitivity to the commonly used antibiotic. Examination of wounds, with cultures of all suspicious wounds using standard bacteriological methods was performed. of a total of 351 specimens were collected from caesarean sections and Gynecology in Jomhoriya hospital -Benghazi in Libyan, 221 (63 %), became infected. Samples from the inanimate environment were also examined by taking pre-moistened swabs from different areas to detect the bacteria that may be found in the surrounding environment of patients. The commonest causative organism was Staphylococcus aureus (19.9 %), followed by staphylococcus epidermidis (10.6 %), klebsiella pneumonia (9.4 %), Acinetobacter baumannii (6%), E. coli (4 %), pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.1 %), streptococcus agalactia (3.1.3 %), Proteus mirabilis (2.3%), S.haemolyticus (0.9 %) and streptococcus viridians (0.3 %). The sensitivity pattern of bacterialisolated from patients in postoperative wound infection, the organism were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, Amikacin and chloramphenicol with ciprofloxacin showing the highest percentage sensitivity, while Ampicillin, Penicillin, Amoxicillin, cephalexin and colstinsulphat were showing the low percentage sensitivity. Factors associated with surgical wound infection included pre-existing illness, duration of hospital stay and metabolic disease are considered as independent risk factors for wound infections.

Keywords: poste-operative wound infection, wound culture, Antibiotic susceptibility

59. Specific Radioactivity of Potassium in Building Materials in some Iraqi Cities

Abstract:


Radiation exposure of the population can be increased appreciably by the use of building materials containing above-normal levels of naturally occurring radionuclides of terrestrial origin. Thus, in this paper, the specific radioactivities of potassium (40K) in building materials from four cities in Iraq were studied using the natural gamma rays spectrometry technique and the NaI(TI) detector .The chosen building materials were bricks, sands, cement, Block, plaster. A total number of thirteen samples were collected from four cities; five samples from Najaf city, four samples from Karbala city, two samples from Babylon and Quadisiyah. The results showed that the maximum radioactivity of 40K was found in the bricks from Najaf with a value of 977.79Bq/kg, and the minimum value was found in the sands from Karbala city which was 108.73Bq/kg. The obtained results show that the most majority of the Iraqi building materials have the exemption level comparing these results globally, were found them to be less than the permissible range internationally.

Keyword: Potassium, Radioactivity, Building Materials, Iraqi cities.

60. Evaluation of Natural Radioactivity and Radiological Hazards of Cement Available in Libyan Market

Abstract:


In this study six samples of cement from commercial marketplace of material bricks in Libya (El-Beida) were collected and measured using gamma spectrometry (NaI). The concentration activities of226Ra, Th232 and K40 were found to be ranged from 10.48, 10.79 and 40.67 Bq/Kg to 33.07, 27.22 and 128.2 Bq/Kg, respectively. The radiological hazards were evaluated from the determination of radium equivalent activity (Req): the absorbed gamma dose rates (D), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin), the gamma index (Iγ), alpha index (Iα) and that the outdoor and indoor annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were 25μSvy-1 and 99.7μSvy-1 respectively. These values are less than the world average values70μSvy-1 outdoorand 470μSvy-1 indoor. The absorbed dose rate take maximum value at 20.31nGyh-1 which is lower than the world average value of 55nGyh-1. The values of the hazard indices were lower than the recommended levels.

Key words: gamma spectrometry, concentration activities, radiological hazards, cements.

61. Optimal Position Control of DC-motor Response Based on Optimization Techniques

Abstract:


Controller parameters of dynamic systems must be precisely determined to achieve appropriate results. Optimization techniques are suitable tools to accurately determine these controller gains. The PID controller is widely utilized to control the dynamic systems. The DC-motor position is controlled by optimized PID controller. The gains of this controller are optimized by means of Particle Swarm Optimization. Desired performance specifications of the DC-motor response can be precisely obtained by applied optimized controller gains. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization method was applied to the same PID-controlled DC-motor. Required responses performance specifications are introduced to be references to the optimized responses. A comparison between the results that are obtained via both optimization approaches is done. The errors between the required and actual responses’ performance specifications are evaluated in both results. The total average error is calculated to investigate the feasibilities of both optimization techniques.

Keywords: DC-motor, Genetic algorithm, Particle swarm optimization, PID controller.

62. The Entities Extraction for Entity Relationship Models from Natural Language Text via Machine Learning Algorithms

Abstract:


Extracting entities for an entity relationship model from natural language text is not a trivial mission. There are many approaches used, but none of these approaches are able to produce a fully automated system. In this paper a new approach for extracting entities from natural language text is established by using machine learning algorithms. The system uses proper linguistic features within a natural language text to obtain the candidate list of entities. It then utilises a machine learning classifier to define entities from the list. The system is fully automated and reaches up to 85% precision.

Keywords: Entity Relationship Models, Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning Classifiers.

63. Using Recommendation Systems to Recommend Relevant Items

Abstract:


With the increase of the volume of data available in different domains, it is being more difficult for users to find what they are looking for. Recommendation systems have been used to make recommendations for users to help them in finding relevant items. They can be used in many applications such as online stores, tourist websites, libraries, and more. Recommendation systems use different algorithms to assist the search process for an item and make the right recommendations. In this paper, we review the various methods and algorithms used in recommendation systems. Besides, we demonstrate how recommendation systems can be used in online stores to suggest products for customers. An implementation of one of the algorithms using Python is presented in this work. The piece of software we report here can be augmented with any online store web site to makesuggestions about the merchandise for the customers.

Keywords: Recommendation systems, collaborative filtering, products recommendation, online stores.


64. Petrophysical Evaluation of Nubian Sandstone Reservoir Sarir Field - Southeast Sirt Basin

Abstract:

The work was carried out to evaluate the petrophysical characteristics of Nubian sandstone in Sarir field. The data used in this study were mainly wire-line logs from three wells (D11-BLK9, D13-BLK9 and D14-BLK9). The aim of this study is to do the formation evaluation using petrophysical parameters from wire-line logs in order to determine lithology, porosity, permeability and fluid saturation and to understand the importance of the analysis and distribution of petrophysical properties on reservoir and predict oil recovery. In this work, Interactive Petrophysics (V3.4) software was used to perform a solid computation of petrophysical properties and then give summaries of the results. It is important to identify properly the lithology and the reservoir to allow an accurate petrophysical calculation of porosity, water saturation and permeability. The determination of lithology based on cross-plot neutron versus density log was important step to come up with the reservoir petrophysical properties. The quality of the reservoir is determined by set the cut-off values of the petrophysical properties and describe the change in lithologies. It worth to mention that, the presence of shale in the entire reservoir influenced negatively in the quality of the reservoir and net pay values. The petrophysical properties of the reservoir in Sarir oil field are good enough to permit hydrocarbon production.

Keywords: Nubian sandstone, formation evaluation, conventional log, petrophysical parameters, oil recovery.


65. Organic Geochemistry of the Tagrifat Shale in well A1-NC129, Sirt Basin, Libya

Abstract:


The aim of this work is to conduct a geochemical evaluation of the Tagrifat Shale (Upper Cretaceous) inwell A1-NC129, Sirt Basin. The results showed that the Tagrifat Shale has poor to good quality (TOC ranges from 0.45 to 1.82%). Type II/III kerogen is dominant in the shale. The Tmax values (420-445oC) indicated that the maturation of the organic matter ranges from immaturity to early maturity. The Ro and Tmax suggested that the Tagrifat Shale was deposited in a marine environment.

Keywords: Organic Geochemistry, Source Rock, Tagrift Shale, Sirt Basin, Libya.


66. Environmental Geochemistry of Some Mollusks Species at Al Hariqa Harbor, Tobruk, NE Libya


Abstract:

The main objective of this work is to study the environmental geochemistry and the affect of petroleum exporting activities on some components of eco-system by evaluate the concentration of some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, Hg and Se) in some mollusks species (Monodonta turbinata, Patella vulgata and Brachidonates exustus) at Al Hariqa harbor, Tobruk, NE Libya, by using ICPMS technology. The heavy metal concentrations in the studied mollusks species are higher in the soft parts than in the hard shells. The content of As, Zn, Cr, Pb and Hg in Brachidonates exustus is higher than in other species, while Monodonta turbinata is the best accumulator for Cu, Co and Se. Moreover, the chemical analysis shows that Patella vulgata is better accumulator for Cd and Ni than the other species. The IP values show that the mollusks species are unpolluted with Co, Ni, Cr, Pb and Hg, while they are polluted with Cd, Zn and Se, Monodonta turbinata and Brachidonates exustus are also polluted with Cu and As, respectively, which generally suggesting that the study area is polluted by various heavy metals from oil seepage and domestic waste sources.

Key words: Al Hariqa harbor, Monodonta turbinate, Patella vulgate, Heavy metal, Brachidonates exustus, Environmental geochemistry.


67. Detecting Karstic Features by Using 2-D Seismic and P-Waves Velocity in the Southern Part of the North Sea – The UK


Abstract:


Generally, the North Sea Chalk is interpreted as having been deposited under a quiet, homogeneous deep marine environment. This chalky limestone is underwent to the rock dissolution that caused the karstic feature. The observations of highly discontinuous reflection patterns on 2-D seismic reflection data from the south of the North Sea in the UK have successfully identified some general ideas of karstic feature in the chalky limestone layer. Seismic discontinuity and seismic attributes indicate that the area between (7000 m -7500 m) from time (0.01 ms - 0.08 ms) on the seismic line 45-B is characterized by discontinuous and relatively medium to weak levels of instantaneous amplitude compared with high levels of instantaneous frequency in the same area. These discontinuous and anomalies level of amplitudes interpreted as karst collapse filled with above sediments. Moreover, integrating seismic section with well log data infer that the p- waves velocity in the top of chalky limestone layer in two wells are unequal values. This variation of the velocities are caused by fracture above the karst collapse.

Key words: Seismic, p- waves, karst, North Sea.

68. Morphological and morphometric traits of the Sagitta of Sparus aurata, Oblada melanura, Mugile cephalus and Oreochromis niloticus fish from east Libya Mediterranean Sea coast

Abstract:


Sparus aurata, Oblada melanura, Mugile cephalus and Oreochromis niloticus fish used in the present study were collected from the artisanal catch of eastern Libya Mediterranean Sea during April to July 2017. Growth of S. aurata and O. melanura was isometric, their b values of the power length-weight relationships were close to 3 (2.91 and 3.012 consecutively), the value that designate isometric growth. M. cephalus and O. niloticus have negative allometric growth (b: 2.487 and 2.770). Morphological traits of sagittae of each species were described in terms of sagittal length, height and weight, dorsal and ventral margins, sulcus acusticus, ostium, cauda, rostrum and antirostrum, and posterior and anterior ends. Sagitta length, height and weight of S. aurata, O. melanura, M cephalus and O. niloticus were related to fish length and weight by linear equations.

Keywords: length weight relationship, otolith, sagitta, morphometrics, sparus aurata, oblada melanura, mugile cephalus, oreochromis niloticus.

69. Morphological traits of Solea vulgaris (Perciformes) from eastern Libya Mediterranean Sea coast

Abstract:


Morphological traits (descriptive, morphometric and meristic) ofSoleavulgaris (Quensel, 1806)was established using 45 fish collected randomly from the artisanal catch ofTamimi landing site, eastern Libya Mediterranean Sea coast. The body of S. vulgaris was flat and ovoid.The eyes were anterior on the right side, the lower one posterior to the upper. The dorsal fin extended from the head to the caudal peduncle, the anal fin extended from behind the pelvic fin to the caudal peduncle, the pectoral and pelvic fins were well developed, and the caudal fin was round.The body was greyish-brown to reddish-brown, with diffused black tints.The mouth curved and terminated behind the lower eye.S. vulgarisis caught mainly by nets from soft, coarse and rocky bottoms of variable depths, but mostly from soft bottom not exceeding 10m in depth. The fish is popular among foreigners living in Libya, but not among Libyans.The power length-weight relationship of the fishwas W = 0.0036L3.2569. The Fulton’s condition factor CFwas 0.8188. Its value increased gradually with increase in fish length: CF=0.0108L + 0.5627, R2=0.44, X.Various degrees of binary correlation existed among the morphometric parameters; all parameters correlated positively and strongly with fish length or weight. Power, linear and logarithmic regressions relating the parameters with fish length had equal power in describing the relationship (comparable R2). The derived meristic form wasD, 69-78 (70); A, 59-63 (62); P (upper), 9-10 (9); (lower), 7-9 (7); V, 5-6 (5); C, 17-19 (19); LL, 129-140 (130). Numbers between parentheses indicates mode values.

Key words: Morphological traits, Soleavulgaris, soles, Libya

70. Morphological traits ofDiplodus sargus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Diplodus vulgaris (Saint-Hilaire, 1817) (Sparidae) from Eastern Libya

Abstract:


Eighty D. sargus and 80 D. vulgaris taken randomly from the artisanal catch at Susa landing site, eastern Libya Mediterranean Sea coast, during winter and spring 2017,wereused to establish key morphological traits of both fish. The two species were “look-alike” fish, both had rounded and compressed grey-silver bodies, but with varying number of vertical and horizontal strips.D. sargus and D. vulgaris were 19.3±0.6 and 20.7±0.5cmlong (mean±StE). Corresponding total weights were 115.2±9.6 and 169.2±11.2g. The length (L) - weight (W) relationshipswere W=0.323*L1.94**and W=0.37*L2.74**consecutively. Fulton’s condition factors (KF±StE) were 1.62±0.099 and 1.77±0.060. Morphometric parameters of D. vulgarishad slightly higher valuesthanD. sargusparameters,with the exception of pectoral fin length, which was noticeably higher in case of D. sargus, and the dorsal finlength of D. vulgaris, which was about twice that of D. sargus.These two parameters, and their ratios from fish length,arehandy diagnostic tools for discriminating between the two “look-alike” species. Most morphometric parameterscorrelated strongly with each other.Linear and power regressions that relate theseparameters to fish length or head length were highly significant;butthe linear regressionof D. sargus had higher R2 value. Meristic forms derived in the present study for both fishshowed high degree of overlap: D. sargus: D, IX-XIV(XI) + 12–15(13); A, III + 9–14(13); P, 12–16(14); V, I + 4-5(5); LL, 47-68(56) (Parenthesis include modes of meristic counts) D. vulgaris:D, VI-XII(XI) + 8–16(14); A, II–III(III) + 10–14(13); P, 12–16(14); V, I + 3-7(5); LL, 37-67(46)

Key words: Morphological traits, Diplodus sargus, Diplodus vulgaris, Sparidae, Libya.

71. Concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cd in muscles, liver, skin, gills and gut of Tilapia zillii (Cichlidae) in Ain Ziyana brackish lagoon, eastern Libya Mediterranean Sea

Abstract:


The objective of the present study was to establish concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cd in tissues of Tilapia zilliifrom Ain Ziyana lagoon, eastern Libya Mediterranean coast.Main physicochemical parameters of surface water were measured on April 2017; 20 lagoon T. zillii were used in the study. The lagoon was brackish, slightly alkaline and rich with dissolved oxygen; temperature ofsurface water was moderate.The length-weight relationship of the fishwas: W=0.008L3.282, R2: 0.850; Fulton condition factor (CF) was 2.0314±0.050 (±StE).Metals levels inthe water and the tissues were: Fe>Pb>Cd. All levels were below the maximum allowable limits set by international authorities. Pb of surface water correlated with Fe and Cd levels suggesting acommon source for the three metals. Levels of Pb in tissues of T. zillii were: liver, gut>skin, gills>muscles; levels of Fe were: liver>gills,gut>muscles,skin. Cdlevels were: gut >liver>muscles, gills and skin.Regressionsof metals concentrations in the different tissues with fish length were not significant, indicating that metal concentrations do not change as the fish grows. Gut Pb and Cd levels correlated positively and very strongly with each other, suggesting a common source of supply to the gut, so were Pb and Cd in skin.Bioaccumulation ofCd was: gut (611.905), liver (458.707), muscles (161.293), gills (146.667) and skin (143.401); Pbranged from 18.947% in muscles to 96% in liver;Fe inliver and gills were (239.292%) and (108.589%).

Key words: heavy metals, Tilapia zillii, eastern Libya, Mediterranean Sea.

72. Microplastics in the beach of Al Haniyah coast

Abstract:


Microplastics is a tiny particle their size from 5mm to 1mm and caused a huge pollution to the marine environment. This study displays the percentage of microplastics in beach Al Haniyah coast. The fragments were the dominate with 46 % and 26 % of pellet whereas 14 % for other granular, 13 % foam and 1 % filament. The color is also using as a classified to define the microplastics, the white color was 53% and the second highest percent was brown with 25 %, blue and green black Red and pink by 5.7, 4.5, 1.1, 1.1, 1.1 % respectively. This study can provide a primary data of microplastics pollution in the east coast Libya (Al Haniyah) including their shapes and colors.

Key words: microplastics, marine environment, Al Haniyah coast, Libya.


73. Using of Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM) Method to Solve the Balanced and Unbalanced Assignment Problems

Abstract:


Assignment problems and Transportation Problems are considered as one of the most important applications of linear programming and are used to solve many economic and administrative problems.In assignment problems, there are n resources to which it is wanted to assign to n tasks on a one-to-one basis, and also the cost of assigning a given resource to a given task is needed to be known, in order to find an optimal assignment that minimizes the total cost. The Hungarian method is an algorithm which finds an optimal assignment for a given cost matrix. As far, Transport issues are those matters that concern the transfer of certain products from the places of production or manufactured to the places of consumption or storage, through a special matrix containing figures for transport costs, in which the main objective is to make the cost of transport at a minimum value taking into account supply and demand constraints. There are several methods to solve these types of problems, where the best methods are Vogel's Approximation Method and its modifications that their algorithm is based on finding the lowest possible cost of transport.This paper presents an attempt to implement the Vogel’s approximation method (VAM) in case of minimization of assignment problems, and ensure that it will give an optimal solution comparing to Hungarian method that are assigned to solve these types of assignment problems,where, the results show that the suggested method gives the same or better solution than the other methods.

Keywords: Assignment Problems, Hungarian Method and Vogel's Approximation Method.

74. Existence of weak solutions for a nonlinear functional-differential equation

Abstract:


The existence of solution of the functional equations, functional integral and differential equations, in different classes of functions, have been studied by some authors. Our aim of this paper is to study the existence of weak solutions for the initial value problem of functional differential equation.

In the reflexive Banach space. For this aim we study, firstly, the existence of weak solutions for a nonlinear functional integral equation in reflexive Banach spaces. The main tool used in our study is O'Regan fixed point theorem.

Keywords: Weak solution, functional differential equation, relatively weakly compact set, reflexive Banach space.


75. Optimization of Nonlinear Differential equations for Defining One leg Human Locomotion

Abstract:


This paper discusses how to optimize the Bidirectional of the central pattern generators (CPGs) to produce rhythmic patterns for human locomotion by using the enhancement Genetic Algorithm and pattern search function. It also shows how small changes in some CPG parameters in stable domain result in different walking gaits, optimizing bidirectional two CPGs in stable domain do not only enhance movement but also generate rhythmic patterns similar to the rhythmic patterns derived from real data without any input or sensory feedback.

Keywords: Central Patterns Generators (CPGs), Modeling of One leg of Human, Stability analysis, Optimizing Nonlinear Differential Equations, Real Data.


76. RSA Cryptography Algorithm and its Applications to Security System by Using Linear Congruence

Abstract:


The RSA algorithm is studied by using linear congruence class in a finite field for making the processes faster as well as secure. The concept of RSA encryption using Chinese remainder theorem, Fermat's little theorem and extended Euclidean algorithm are presented. The illustrative examples and its applications in everyday life from practical point of view to validate the developed algorithm are included, that in order to effectively understand the concept of linear congruence and its relation to the RSA.

Key words: RSA algorithm, linear congruence, Chinese Remainder Theorem, Fermat's Little Theorem.



77. Oscillatory Behavior of Second Order Nonlinear Differential Equations

Abstract:


The oscillation theory for second order non-linear ordinary differential equations is of theoretical and practical interest. In this work, we are concerned with oscillation of the second order non-linear ordinary differential equations by using Riccati type transformation and integral averaging technique, we establish some new sufficient criteria under which all solutions of these differential equations are oscillatory. In addition, we give some illustrative examples. However, our results improve and extend some existing results in the literature.

Keywords: Alternating Coefficients, Second Order, Oscillation Solutions. AMO (MOS) Subject Classification: 34A 34, 34K 11


78. Graph of NG groups not subset of S3 and S4

Abstract:


In this paper, we introduceand study the graph of the groups of mappings on a set X with respect to function compositions that cannot be subsets of the symmetric groups S3 and S4. Furthermore, we investigate some of the justifications on these groups that have studied in graph theory, and we got good results. Moreover, we consider the graph of these groups by fixed points and study some properties of it.

Key Words: NG group, graph theory, Fixed Points.


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Special Issue

572-578

78. Graph of NG groups not subset of S3 and S4

Faraj A. Abdunabi et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Special Issue 1 (2021) 572–578

Abstract:


In this paper, we introduce and study the graph of the groups of mappings on a set X with respect to function compositions that cannot be subsets of the symmetric groups S3 and S4. Furthermore, we investigate some of the justifications on these groups that have studied in graph theory, and we got good results. Moreover, we consider the graph of these groups by fixed points and study some properties of it.

Key Words: NG group, graph theory, Fixed Points.


79. On Applicationsrelated to the Gamma Function of Matrices

Abstract:


Matrix functions have a major role in science and engineering. One of the fundamental matrix functions, which is particularly important due to its connections with certain matrix differential equations and other special matrix functions, is the Gammamatrix function. The purpose of this paper is that derive a formula for the Gamma matrix function for a matrix prevalent as a leading term in singular differential systems of equations.

Keywords: Special functions; Matrix; Gamma function of Matrices; Jordan Canonical Form. AMS Subject Classification: 33C05, 33C15, 34A05, 15A60, 41A30, 41A60.


80. Improving local software quality through improve process efficiency

Abstract:


While software project have became large, noticed that strong and effective software process can be driving the software product to high quality .high-quality software is tightly connected to the process used to produce the software .software process improvement is an important activity which starts when an organization plans to enhance/purify the capabilities its ongoing processes. Diverse organizations with very different software products have approached software process improvement in a variety of ways within the context of the capability maturity model (CMM). In addition, each has realized substantial benefit. key performance indicators (KPI)that can be used for software process efficiency evaluation. The outcome of the measurement is used to initiate further process adjustments and improvements, and software process improvement (SPI) aims at providing software development organizations with mechanisms for evaluating their existing processes. This study has been initiated with the intention to help local software organizations (mid-size IT Company) to reach the mature and effective software process in their organizations .the result of the survey study performed at a local software organizations have shown that there is a set of problems that may cause process inefficiency in the software companies. Also, to determine effective of local software process that used in local organizations and identify the strengths and weaknesses of the software process .the outcomes of this research can be helpful in understanding the problems the affecting improve software quality. And help software organizations improve themselves by identifying their critical problems and establishing improvement priorities.

Keywords: software project, capability maturity model, key performance indicators, software process improvement.



81. The Influence of Artificial Light Pollution on Orientation of Hatchling Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Alfrara beach, East Liby

Abstract:


Alfrara beach is one of the most important nesting places for the endangered Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) on the eastern coast of Libya. Recently, a tourist resort has been established on this beach. Under natural conditions, most sea turtle hatchlings emerge at the dark night, turtles orient to the brighter and lower seaward horizon. However, light pollution by artificial lights can disrupt the nocturnal orientation of the hatchlings to the sea. In this research, hatchling behavior was observed during natural emergencies, where the influence of artificial lights of the resort was assessed on sea turtle hatchlings orientation. We found that artificial lights were significantly responsible for hatchlings disorientation, thus disrupting their sea-finding ability. Based on these results and in order to protect sea turtle hatchlings, we recommend control artificial lights in the resort area to reduce the light pollution on the nesting beach.

Key words: Light pollution, Orientation, Sea turtle, Caretta caretta, Alfrara beach, East Libya.



82. Microfacial and Paleontological investigations of Darnah Formation in Adahr al Hamar road cut section, south of Darnah, NE Libya

Abstract:


The Darnah Formation in the studied Adahral Hamar road-cut sectiondisplaysfifteen lithological microfacies grouped into three major depositional cycles. These cycles occur in a rhythmic shoaling up patterns with wackestone at the base grads upward into boundstone/bindstone texture.The main bioclasts incorporated in these microfacies; are larger foraminiferal taxa (Nummulites, Discocyclina, Sphaerogypsina and Operculina),coral and coralline red algae, with some echinoids, pelecypoda "Oyster" and bryozoan elements.The depositional environment of the established microfacies ranged from lagoon to organic buildups, they occur inthree major cycles formed as a response tothe sea level fluctuations. A plaeokarstic/paleosolzone delineating the unconformity surface between Darnah Formation and the overlying Algal Limestone Member of Al Bayda Formation. The missing Shahhat Marl Member of Al Bayda Formation is attributed to erosion.

Keywords: Al Jabal al Akhdar,Darnah Formation,Carbonate Microfacies, Foraminifera, Middle Eocene.


83. Detecting groundwater potential by using NMR Techniques in Shonnyia NE Albayda, AljabalAlakdar – Libya

Abstract:


Shonnyia is placed at 8 km northeast of Albayda City in the Aljabel AlAkhdar region. The area is situated on the second platform of Aljabal Alakhdar; and the area is suffered by scarcity of water. Although two water-wells drilled on a 23-hectare farm, one of them is completely dry and the second well is barely product water. The geological background of the region is characterized by Carbonates rocks which contains a lot of fractures in rocks layers. The groundwater usually flows inside these fractures that consider being unfamiliar Aquifer. In addition, there is no specific water table in the region but there are geological formations that have a high potential of groundwater. From this Complexity of geological setting on the region leads to the use of untraditional techniques for locating groundwater. This study is based on NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques that use to determine the 3rd well. The NMR method is the most Geophysical exploration technique that widely uses recently in unearthing natural resources. The NMR survey is performed in the study area. The acquisition data has been processed and interpenetrated. The survey results indicate the untraditional aquifer, the best site to drill and detecting water depth. According to the survey results, borewell has been drilled to 350 m depth and water starts at depth 240m flow up to the surface. The production of water well is 4 liter per second.

Keywords: NMR techniques, Groundwater Detection, Geophysical application, Groundwater flow.


84. Effect of Vitamin D on Lipid Profile Among Population in Tripoli City

Abstract:


Vitamin D is a highly prevalent across the world. It is an essential fat-soluble vitamin produced in the body through exposure the skin to the sunlight and obtained from dietary sources. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, through its effect on serum lipid profile. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of vitamin D status on lipid profile in Libyan adults. Serum level of25 (OH)D and lipid parameters were determined in 118 subjects aged 22-81 years attended a private clinic in Tripoli, Libya, using commercially available kits (cobas c system). The result of this study showed the mean level of 25 (OH) D was 13.59 ng/ml (ranged from 12.36 to14.8ng/ml). The serum levels of 25 (OH) D were not significantly associated with total cholesterol (TC) P≤0.230, Triglyceride (TG) P≤0.121 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) P≤0.176 levels. Meanwhile, a significant positive associationwas noted between 25 (OH) D and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) P≤0.010. In conclusion, deficiency and insufficiency of vitamin Dremain a concern among adults. However, low VD status was found only associated with LDL. No significant association was observed between vitamin D deficiency and cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL. Low of 25 (OH) vitamin D levels were observed more among females, as compared to males.

Keywords: vitamin D (VD), Vitamin D deficiency (VDD), total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein(LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL).

85. Relationship between Obesity (BMI) and Anaemia (Hb %) in Derna City/Libya

Abstract:


This study aimed to find is there relationship between body mass index (BMI) and anemia (Hb %). Data were collected from polyclinic Dar Esalam Centre, privet clinic Elrasheed laboratory, Elhrash polyclinic in Derna City \ Libya, the period of collection data was from May 2019 to May 2020. 360 samples were collected from different ages starting from 5 to 75 years and from different weights starting from 10 to 130 kilograms. From weights and lengths were also measured and then BMI was calculated by the metric, BMI formula = Weight (KG) ÷ Height (Metres²). For each case was collected (2ml) of venous blood were withdrawn by sterile vain puncture and divided as in EDTA tube to analyse the samples by BC-3200 Auto Hematology Analyzer. Statistical analysis by (statistical package for social science spss) SPSS for windows, version 26; was used for data analysis. Values were expressed as Frequency, Percent %, means ± SD and Chi-square test. Correlation between variables was assessed. From the data of heights show that the heights BMI > 25 % (N = 172) for Hb%, the X2 = 81.372, P- Value = 0.000 > 1, & for Gender, X2 = 0.837, P- Value = 0.360< 1, and for Age was X2 = 105.070, P- Value = 0.000 > 1 & for the law, normal weights BMI < = 25 (N = 188), X2 = 134.862, P- Value = 0.000 > 1, the X2 = 4.170, P- Value = 0.041 > 1 for Gender , & X2 = 121.043, P- Value = 0.000 > 1 and the Correlations between BMI & Hb % = 0.133 , P-Value = 0.082 > 1 . The study conclude that there is no relationship between BMI & anemia if their relation between them was by chance, the relationship was between BMI & Gender by X2 = 0.837, P- Value = 0.360< 1.

Key words: Obesity, Anaemia, Body Mass Index (BMI), Hb %.

86. Comparison study between males and females of age 8-11 years to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure and heart dynamics

Abstract:


In this experiment, we studied the effect of exercise on blood variables and cardiac dynamics for males and females of age 8-11 years. The study included the detection of differences in these variables in rest and after ventilation periods between the two groups. The experimental method used to suit the nature of the research. The research sample consisted of children of both sexes; divided into two groups, the first of which consisted of 10 males and the second contained 10 females. The tests and measurements used to collect data included the following: (Aerodynamic voltage - Physical measurements - Measurement of some cardiac variables and blood dynamics). The test performed in two separate days, including the first day of the male ventilator test, while the second test included the same test for female group. In view of the presentation of the results and their discussion, a set of conclusions drawn from the following, the most important of which are: The results of the research showed an increase in the value of the variable (MABP) in the post-effort period compared to comfort، and a decrease in the value of (HR) for females. Males showed an increase in the value of the variable (dBP.r) compared to females during the rest period، while females showed a non-moral arithmetic increase in the value (MABP.r). Males showed an increase in the values of the variables (Dbp.I, HR.l) compared to females in the post-effort period, while they showed a non-moral arithmetic increase in the value (TPR.I), an unmoral computational decrease in value (P.P.I, S.V.I) compared to females. Females showed a moral decrease in (dBP.I) after the post-effort compared to the rest period.

Keys words: aerobic exercise, heart dynamics, Blood pressure, Heart Rate, Pulse pressure, Total Peripheral Resistant, Stroke Volume, Cardiac output.

87. Comparison of two methods of DNA extraction for amplification by real-time PCR using blood samples

Abstract:


Extraction of DNA is one of the most basic and critical steps affecting molecular-based techniques. There are many popular DNA isolation methods from human whole blood for efficient genomic DNA extraction. This study was aimed to compare the genomic DNA quality and quantity between modified chemical Non-Phenolic Non-Enzymatic Rapid-Method and commercially available silica column-based blood DNA isolation kit (QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit). Genomic DNA was extracted from nineteen female Libyan students using both protocols was evaluated using gel electrophoresis, Nanodrop spectrophotometric analysis, and real time PCR assay. Results revealed significant differences among the two methods (40.55 ± 37.65 ng/μL for modified chemical; 22.84 ± 6.1 ng/μL for QiagenQIAamp Kit; P= 0.04). The DNA purity (OD260/OD280) of DNA obtained from both methods produced the highest purity DNA, with differences being not statistically significant. Our results showed that modified chemical method was the best choice to DNA extraction from whole blood samples in large scale because this method was found cheap enough with good yield over commercial kits especially in the poor laboratories. On the other hand, this method is providing a sufficient quantity and quality of DNA for real- time PCR analysis.

Keywords: DNA extraction, Whole blood, modified chemical method, QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kits.

88. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Rubella Infections in Women with Recurrent Abortion in Wadi-Ataba Region, Libya

Abstract:


Toxoplasmosis and Rubella (German measles) are diseases causing by two microorganisms Toxoplasma gondii and Rubella virus respectively. These two diseases are usually associated with the recurrent abortion in women at the reproductive age. Recurrent Abortion is defined as the incidence of two abortions or more before the 20 weeks of pregnancy. Few studies have been conducted on the prevalence of Toxoplasmosis and Rubella disease in Southwest of Libya. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of specific IgG and IgM antibodies against the Toxoplasma gondii and Rubella virus. Five ml of blood samples were collected from 71 women with recurrent abortion in Wadi-Ataba region during the period of January 2017 to December 2019. The serum of blood samples were screened using Vitek Immuno Diagnostic Assay System (VIDAS). The results were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, the Chi-square test was used to measure the statistical significantdifferences at level p<0.05. The positive rates of IgG for T. gondii and Rubella virus were 16.9% (12/71) and 80.3% (57/71), respectively, whereas the rate of IgM for Rubella was positive in only one patient (1.4%). The specific IgM antibodies were found to be negative for T. gondii in all tested samples. According to the number of abortion, a significant association was found between the specific IgG antibodies of T. gondii and abortion (p=0.006). Also significant differences were detected in the prevalence of specific IgM antibodies ofRubella virus between the age groups (p=0.046). No statistical differences were observed between the number of abortion and the prevalence of Rubella IgG (p=0.406) and IgM(p=0.820).

Key words: Abortion, Wadi-Ataba, Specific IgG, Specific IgM, VIDAS.

89. Effect of gonadotropin hormone on the fertilization process. the number and Weight of births and fetuses after treatment with dexamethasone hormone

Abstract:


This experiment was conducted in laboratories of zoology department, faculty of art and science, omar Al-Mukhtar University, Al-gubba. from 18 Jan -2019- 21 Feb 2019 , for aims study and observe for any effects of gonadotropin hormones on the function of ovaries and uterus in the production of embryos after fertility, also the role of glucocorticoid hormone in inhibition of ovarian and uterine function. Twenty four adults females and males mice, average weight between (30-37g).Treatments: Divide the mice to 4 Groups: (C) Control (injection normal saline),(T1) HMG (injection of 2doses) then HCG (one dose), (T2) Oradexon (injection of 6 doses),(T3) Oradexon and gonadotropin (HMG and HCG) (injection),Then one male mice placed with 5 females and examine all groups and observation any changes.Then one male mice placed with 5 females and examine all groups and observation any changes.When observing cages, The data was analyzed using statistically T test.the results following was compared : Compared (T1) Treatment group gonadotropine with control (C) group, (T1) showed significant increase P£0.01 in number of births and significant increase P£0.01 in Weight of births (gram).and When compared (T2) treatment daxamathasone group with (C) control group, (T2) showed significant decrease P£0.01 in number of births and significant decrease P£0.01 in Weight of births (gram).(T2) showed low % fertilization and decrease number of births and small embryo size and death due to incomplete growth. As well as when compare (T3) treatment group that had been injected gonadotropin with dexamathasone Drug,(T3) showed no significant differences P£0.01 in number of births, that resulted same control group and significant decrease P£0.01 Weight of births (gram). (T3) showed same evolution compared with control group in number births. Conclusion, Administrationof dexamethasone was inhibition of ovaries and uteri function and that negative effect on pregnancy and number of brith. But when administration of exogenous FSH and LH stimulated pregnancy and increased number of birth.

Key Words: Dexamethasone, Gonadotropin, Reproductive system.


90. Culturing of human nasal mucosa derived Fibroblasts using co-culture technique

Abstract:


Fibroblasts are mesenchymalcells (originated from mesoderm) that provide structural support in animal tissues. Fibroblast can be readily cultured in the laboratory and play a significant role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. These cells have been widely used in the emerging field of tissue engineering. Due to their wide distribution in tissues of human, fibroblasts can be obtained from different human tissues. One of the sources of viable human fibroblasts is the nasal mucosa which can be obtained during turbinatectomy (nasal turbinate removal). In this study, we used the co-culture system in which fibroblast is cultured with respiratory nasal epithelium. Nasal mucosa were minced washed thoroughly and digested using 0.3% collagenase type one. The digested mucosa then seeded in 6 wells plates, kept at 370 in humid air with 5% Co2. Once reached confluence fibroblast were removed using 0.05% trypsin EDTA and cultured in a flask. The fibroblast were kept to reach confluence (Passage 1). This preliminary study shows that human nasal mucosa which discarded during turbinatectomy can be used as a source of fibroblast cells which can be used in tissue engineering.

Key words: fibroblasts, tissue engineering, cell co-culturing, human nasal turbinate.

91. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Thymus capitatus Essential Oil Extract on Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection

Abstract:


Pathogenic bacteria recently turned to be increasingly resistant to the most commonly used antibiotics, thus it becomes an essential need to find another active component that participates in controlling pathogens harms. Thymus capitatus is an endemic aromatic medical plant wildly distributed in the Libyan Green Mountain; therefore, T. capitatus extracted essential oil was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. T. capitatus was chemically analyzed to determine the antimicrobial active components using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric techniques (GC/MS). The plant represented twenty-one chemical compounds including Alpha-thujenes, Gamma-terpinen, Carvacrol, Thymol, Trans-caryophyllene, Aromadendrene, Alpha-humulene, Ledene, Gamma cadinene, Delta-cadinene, (-) – spathulenol, Caryophullene oxid, Alpha cadinol, Iso aromadrene epoxide, Cis-alpha bisabolene, Vulgarol B, 2-ethyl-4-methyl anisole, Hexanoic acid, oct-3-en-zylester, Phenol,2 ,3 ,5 ,6 tertramethyl and Anisole. The antimicrobial activity of T. capitatus aromatic essential oil was analyzed on different types of pathogens using serial aromatic oil dilutions including (50%, 25%, 13%, 6% and 3%). The results showed 50% oil dilution is the most effective concentration to all tested pathogens including Escherichia coli 7839 ATCC; Klebsiella pneumoniae 700603 ATCC; Staphylococcusaureus 12973 ATCC and Enterococcusfaecalis 12697 ATCC with an average diameter of inhibition zone was 28 mm. The same oil concentration (50%) showed antimicrobial effect against pathogenic bacteria isolated from urinary tract infection including E.coli; K. pneumoniae; S. saprophyticus and E. faecalis with an average diameter of inhibition zone was 26 mm. Our study may contribute to initial knowledge and would help to discover substances with potential therapeutic uses.

Key words: Thymus capitatus, Antimicrobials, Gas Chromatography Mas Spectrometric.


92. Microbial contamination in the Tobruk Bay basin

Abstract:


This study was carried out to detect microbial contamination in the Tobrukbay basin. The pathogenic bacteria were isolated and diagnosed from fish samples which collected from four locations of study area. The study covered the period from October, 2019 to January 2020. A total of 72 random fresh fish sampleswere collected and represented three predominant fish species in area vis: Spondylisom acantharus (Black Sea bream), Sparisom acretense (Parrotfish) and Mullus barbatus (Red mullet) (24 samples/species). Each collected sample was put in sterile bag. Ten grams of skin area were taken from each sample and chopped under sterile conditions, then were put in 100 ml of distilled water and mixed with stirring for a few minutes. Thewell mixed samples were diluted from 10-1 - 10-5 to detect and count microbes such as total coliform, coliform fecal and E. coli bacteria. Microbial detections and counts were done using dish counting method using suitable nutrient media. On the other hand, glass bottles were used to collect water samples with a volume of 1 liter at a distance of 20 cm from the sea surface. The water temperature, pH and total dissolved salts (T.D.S) were measured. The results indicated that the presence of total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in all fish samples. The analysis of variance revealed that insignificant influence of bacteria species on microbial count among fish samples. The average microbe count was ranged between 1617.0 and 2320.7 bacterium/gram. The results concluded that the high microbial contamination of fish samples collected from Tobruk bay basin and recommended for more researches and studies.

Key word: Microbial Contamination; E.coli, Total coliform, Coliform fecal .



93. Osmoadaptation of haloversatile bacteria isolation from extreme habitat and their tolerance to heavy metal

Abstract:


Pseudomonas mendocina was isolated from sabkha water of the Daryanaregion on the coast of the east Benghazi. P. mendocina showed the ability to grow in M9 minimal medium over a wide range of salinity from 0.5 M NaCl (2.9%) to 3.5 M NaCl (20.5%), with optimum growth at 1.5 M NaCl (8.8%), and it cannot grow in the absence of salt.The exogenous of organic compatible solutes (20 mM), glutamic acid, glycine betaine, and proline were slightly stimulated the growth of P. mendocino at 3.5 M NaCl. However, at 4.5 M NaCl (26.3%), P. mendocino was unable to grow in M9 minimal medium in absence of glutamic acid and proline. Also, P. mendocino was resistant to different concentrations of heavy metals were tested (e.g. 70mM Pb, 60mM Zn, 5 mM Cr, and 0.15 mM Ag). However, the biomass (OD) of P mendocino was highly sensitive and sharply decreased in the presence of 1µM mercury (Hg) (86.36% of the population killed). Furthermore, P. mendocinawas sensitive to most of the antibiotics used and therefore considered safe in terms of use in bioremediation.

Keywords: halotolerantbacteria, compatible solutes, resistant to heavy metals, bioremediation

94. Fossils Classification in the As Sahabi Area, South of the Ajdabiya City


Abstract:


The As Sahabi area is considered as one of the famous vertebrate African localities situated in the northern Libya. Its scientific value is gained by the diverse and high abundance of vertebrate fossil remains, which unveil the understanding of their evolutionary lineages, migration paths and paleoenvironments. This study included a field visit to the area, collecting samples, then preparing the collected excavations and classifying them according to Linnaeus method. The As Sahabi area contains enormous biological diversity in terms of type, size and species. Where, All biome kingdoms are presented in the study area. The collected fossil specimens differ in types from vertebrates, which are bones, teeth, and vertebrae to invertebrates, and they include molluscs, Sponges and Echinoderms. In addition to fossilized trees and fossils traces. By comparing the current living environments of the collected fossils, be able to notice that the paleoenvironmentsin the As Sahabi area vary from marine environment which represented by fish, molluscs and sea urchins to river and continental environments represented by the remains of amphibian and mammals bones such as turtles, crocodiles, Lizard and Hippopotamus to continental environments represented by fossil trees and deer-like remains. This study recommended that; confirmation that the As Sahabi area be a natural reserve to preserve the fossils it reveals and comprehensive field study for the region that includes all scientific specialties in addition to the archaeology department.

Keywords: As Sahabi, Taxonomy, Fossils, Vertebrate, Invertebrates, Paleoenvironments.

95. On Generalized Some Fixed Point Theorems in Extended b2– Metric Spaces

Abstract:


In this paper, we introduce the notion of Kannan Type and ChatterjeaType contractivemappings in the structure of an extended -metric space, and show that these mappings have a unique fixed point in extended -metric space. The aim of this study, is to extend and generalizes some results of Kiran et al to extend -metric spacesand supply some examples to illustrate the results.

Keywords: Extended -metric spaces, Kannan fixed point theorem, Chatterjea fixed point theorem, uniqueness.

96. Knowledge assessment, attitude and practice towards the use of antibiotics among community members of jalu city, Libya

Abstract:


Discovery of antibiotics have helped to manage the devastating diseases. Presently, the antibiotic era is threatened by the emergence of high level of antibiotic resistance of important pathogens. Misuse of antibiotics poses a serious risk to infectious disease control. It is necessary to improve public awareness to bring a change in the behavior of consumers. Therefore, present study was undertaken to assess the existing knowledge, attitude and practices related to antibiotic usage among community members of jalu city, Libya. A cross-sectional study was carried out among community members of jalu city, Libya during May-June 2020. with 558 community members to participate in the study (males: 384; females: 174). Pretested questionnaire was distributed and collected data was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 22.

Substantial number (28%) participants were unaware about the differences in antibiotic-anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotic-antipyretics respectively. (49.5%) of the participants thought it is right to stop antibiotics only based on symptoms improvement.( 43.5%) percent participants believed that antibiotics should always be prescribed to treat flu like symptoms. ( 37.4%) of the participants were not aware of the risks of using antibiotics without consulting a doctor.

Participants demonstrated poor knowledge about antibiotics. Similarly, their attitude and practice toward antibiotic use was associated with misconceptions. An educational intervention can be introduced to make them aware about rational antibiotic practices..

Keywords: Antibiotic, Antibiotic resistance,risks of using antibiotics, questionnaire.



97. The Influence of Artificial Light Pollution on Orientation of Hatchling Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Alfrara beach, East Libya

Abstract:

Alfrara beach is one of the most important nesting places for the endangered Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) on the eastern coast of Libya. Recently, a tourist resort has been established on this beach. Under natural conditions, most sea turtle hatchlings emerge at the dark night, turtles orient to the brighter and lower seaward horizon. However, light pollution by artificial lights can disrupt the nocturnal orientation of the hatchlings to the sea. In this research, hatchling behavior was observed during natural emergencies, where the influence of artificial lights of the resort was assessed on sea turtle hatchlings orientation. We found that artificial lights were significantly responsible for hatchlings disorientation, thus disrupting their sea-finding ability.

Based on these results and in order to protect sea turtle hatchlings, we recommend control artificial lights in the resort area to reduce the light pollution on the nesting beach.

Key words: light pollution· Orientation · Sea turtle · Caretta caretta. Alfrara beach. East Libya.

98. Antibacterial activity and GC-MS analysis of chloroform extract of bark of the Libyan Salvia fruticosa Mill

Abstract:


This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the chloroform extract of the Libyan Salvia fruticosa bark against standard Gram negative bacteriaby use of standard methods and to identify the extract’s bioactive constituent’s by Gas chromatography and Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed significant difference (Pv ≤ o.o5) between the susceptibility of both tested bacteria towards the tested extract. The growth of E.coli ATCC25922 was inhibited with an inhibition zone of 10mm ± 0.01 and MIC of 100mg/ml, while no activity had shown against Ps.aeruginosa ATCC27853. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of four poly-phenolic compounds as constituents of the tested crude extract. Two of them were belong to the flavonones; 5,6,7-Trimethoxy-2-(4- methoxyphenyl)chroman-4-one) and5-Hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)chroman-4-one while the others were belong to the flavones; 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-7-hydroxy-3-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one and 2-(4- Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dimethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one. In conclusion, this study claimed that the chloroform extract of bark of The Libyan Salvia fruticosa have an antibacterial activity against E.coli and also proved that it composed of valuable bio-active constituents presented as flavones and flavonones through which this plant could be considered as a promising source of raw materials with an important pharmaceutical value.

Key words: Antibacterial, MIC, GC-MS analysis, Chloroform extract of Salvia fruticosa bark.


99. Antibacterial activity of seaweeds (Sargassum fluitans and Lauranciapapillosa) extracts against pathogens bacteria

Wafa E. Ali et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Special Issue 1 (2021) 722–727drive.google.com/file/d/1_fZBpCpN-1pFXCaQh5asoB-xNX_0qFTW/view?usp=sharing

Abstract: