Special Issue 1: Covid-19
This issue is for publication on related topics:
- Coronaviruses in General.
- Covid-19 impact on the global economy.
- Covid-19 epidemic impact on international trade.
- Covid-19 epidemic impact on the economy of High Income Countries.
- Covid-19 epidemic impact on the economy of Lower Middle Income Countries.
- Covid-19 epidemic impact on the performance of religious rites.
- Effective management in dealing with a Covid-19 pandemic crisis.
- Covid-19 epidemic impact on political stability.
- Covid-19 epidemic impact on sector, schools, universities.
- Covid-19 epidemic impact on: Medical research, Administration, Economics, Education, Politics, Social, Companies, Industry, Trade.
1:- Title : COVID-19 Story The Unknown Killer and Future Studies
Malek Khalaf Albzeirat, Mokhled S. Al-Tarawneh, Nadeem Khalid, Nik Noriman Zulkepli,
and Dewan Md. Zahurul Islam
Abstract. COVID-19 appeared and spread fear among the population of the whole world from developed to developing countries. Although, at this stage, it is anonymous but it belongs to a family of viruses previously known about 80 years ago. Dealing with it requires an in-depth understanding of Coronaviruses and then put a clear vision and lines in the face of COVID-19. This study is based on a review of previous studies in the field of epidemiology and Coronaviruses and the analysis of some findings and conclusions of previous studies about COVID-19 epidemic. The multifaced effects of the virus on population of the world include economic and social loses and difficulties. The whole world is at war in the face of the epidemic, although in different forms and shapes. This confrontation requires clear steps in the behavioral changed directions of the society in addition to the future directions of science. The research recommends that there is a need, among others, for expanded use Intelligent Application in the future to face such epidemic. The modern technological measures such as AI and the Internet of Things have a future role in the development of epidemiological study and control.
Keywords: COVID-19, Coronaviruses, Managing COVID-19 Epidemic, Intelligent Application, Covid-19 and Future Studies.
2:- Title : Detection of COVID-19 Through Proteinase 3CL-PRO Induced Changes in pH
David Jeong, and Hyojin Jeon
Abstract. The emergence of COVID-19 has become an international level threat not limited to health but affecting other areas such as economy and agriculture. Diagnosis of COVID-19 currently relies on advanced genetic amplification testing that requires a costly apparatus. Development of an inexpensive diagnostic kit that does not rely on genetic amplification but that utilizes antigenic structures on the viral surface, such as the rapid influenza diagnostic test, would allow a more accurate estimation of coronavirus cases around the world. Proteinase 3CL-PRO is a glycoprotein that exists on 96% of the novel COVID-19. This surface glycoprotein cleaves the c-terminus of a protein and produces a carboxylic acid that can alter the pH. The changes in pH could be used to determine the presence of coronavirus in an individual’s mucosa. A decrease in pH was detected in a symptomatic subject in this study who was at a high risk for coronavirus. However, the result could not be confirmed with a genetic amplification test. The purpose of this study is to serve as a seed for further investigations on the search of a more accessible and efficacious antigen-based diagnostic tests. Although confirmatory test were not available, the theoretical background and the results showed a great potential of proteinase 3CL-PRO to be utilized as a target for antigenic diagnostic tests.
Keywords: COVID-19, Diagnostic Tool, Coronavirus.
3:- The Main Protocols to Study Covid-19 Pandemic
Malek Khalaf Albzeirat , Muhammad Iqbal Hussain, Amani Ali Elmetwaly, Nik Noriman Zulkepli, and Marya Khalaf Albzeirat
Abstract: Preventive health care is an important aspect of the internal medicine profession but in most residencies, it is poorly taught and implemented. This study will include knowledge of the recommendations provided by expert groups on preventive health care; include opportunities for residents to consider the conceptual basis of preventive care; Expose residents to professional faculty with constructive preventive attitudes; assist residents in acquiring physical examination skills, screening assessments, and behavioral adjustment therapy related to prevention; and provide a therapeutic atmosphere where high-quality preventive health care is possible. All the skills can be taught as many facets of medicine are now being trained under the guidance of qualified and esteemed staff teaching at the bedside, in the clinics and through ward rounds and lectures. Preventive health care is an integral aspect of medical practice. Four percent of internists 'contacts with patients are for routine health checkups, with a much greater proportion of internists spending time on the other forms of preventive treatment. Preventive medicine is a concern for all internists, not just general internists but also many subspecialists who offer comprehensive care; for some of their patients, this involves preventive medicine. For instance, subspecialists in infectious diseases spend more time on preventive services than do general internists. Jordan, as usual, is one of the leading countries in combating epidemics and preventing their spread, and searching for their causes and ways to prevent them, especially the current situation in the world around the new Coronavirus (COVID-19). This paper is intended to address preventive medicine, clinical epidemiology, and epidemiological studies.
Key Words: Preventive medicine, clinical epidemiology, COVID-19, and Jordan.
4:- Public Health and Preventive Medicine: A Review of Existng Literature and the New Avenue of Research
Maree Mohammad Alzghoul, Norshahrizan Nordin, Tunku Salha Tunku Ahmad, and Mohammad Iqbal Omar
Abstract. It is known that the Covid-19 pandemic has become the biggest problem facing the world today. There is a general global trend to eliminate this pandemic, and many studies have been conducted in this field. Some of these studies have been placed within a limited scope and do not rely on methods of accurate scientific research. The majority of these studies later showed a discrepancy in the statement of cases symptoms, and the mechanism of the pandemic spread, this study aims to shed light on the five most important protocols for scientific interaction in conducting scientific research in this broad field to spare the scientific field of confusion and fallacies, so the new studies should take into account that facts change quickly and are not fixed.
Keywords: Covid-19 Pandemic, World Health Organization, Main Protocols, Covid-19 and Future Studies.
5:- Thinking Of Detecting Covid-19
Sritha zith Dey Babu, Ahmad Mohammad Al-Thunaibat, and
Qutadah Saber Jawazneh3
Abstract: Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).This is a new strain that was discovered in 2019 and has not been previously identified in humans. Coronaviruses are zoonotic which means they are transmitted between animals and people. Moreover, detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans, whereas MERS-CoV was transmitted from dromedary camels to humans. In addition, several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans. Hence, the study provides an application gives a primary detection within a short period and gives some hints regarding Virus Covid-19.
Keywords: Covid-19, Symptoms, Fever, Heart rate, Cough, Smart Application
6:- An Overview of Analysis on The Pandemic Factors of Covid-19
Shalini Yadav, Vikash Kumar, Mohit Sharma, N T Pramathesh Mishra, and Wasim Khan
Abstract: The whole world is facing a new outbreak of very dangerous and fatal disease named as The Corona virus pneumonia, which occurred as a pandemic disaster in early December 2019 in the Wuhan city of China. This Pandemic has special influencing factors and conditions on the mind set of common people. The outbreak has created severe doubts, as it is very unique and its onset is very slow which add clinical confusions for its diagnosis. The source of infection is miscellaneous which further creates confusions to its prevention and control. The easy route of transmission, higher morbidity and susceptibility of the population account for its higher incidences and, the "complicated" natural factors and "superposed social factors" are the obvious characteristics of the widespread Pandemic . The quick and effective prevention and regulatory strategies adopted by the government of China have greatly changed the Pandemic process which was highly recognized by the World Health Organization expert group and praised by many countries and international organizations. However, analyzing the scenario deeply and planning for a long term perspective, not even china but the global health security will have to take highly effective measures for a long time to eliminate the Pandemic .
Keywords: Corona virus Pneumonia, Pandemic Disaster, Complicated natural Factor, Superposed Social factors, Pandemic
7:- COVID-19: Simultaneous Surveillance Studies and Case Series, Jordan as a Case Study
Ahmad Khalaf Alkhawaldeh
Abstract. The outbreak of coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has already taken on pandemic proportions and has affected more than 100 countries in recent weeks. It is imperative that global healthcare systems are prepared. Containment initiatives in Jordan, on the other hand, have decreased new cases by over 63%. The Jordanian national health system has been very pleased with its ability to adequately meet the needs of the patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, and includes intensive care. From 2 March to 14 April 2020, between 4% and 8% of active infected patients in Jordan registered daily in intensive care. The percentage is very low.
Keyword: COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, Simultaneous surveillance and Jordan.
8:- Community’s Response towards Ebola Virus Disease Survivors in Bundibugyo District, Western Uganda
Daisy Nabadda , Luke Nyakarahuka, Wumbiya Simon Demaya , Richard Asaba
Abstract: Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has left a lasting impression on the people of Bundibugyo district in Western Uganda and the memories are still fresh among the community members. Bundibugyo borders with Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) which has continued to be affected by EVD. In May 2018, there was an outbreak of EVD in Bikoro town found in DRC. Bundibugyo district experienced EVD outbreak in 2007 which left devastating effects to the communities. This study was conducted to examine community’s response towards EVD survivors in Bundibugyo district. The study employed a cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative data collection approaches. Primary data was collected in the year 2016 in Kikyo sub-county and Bundibugyo Town Council that are found in Bundibugyo district. A structured questionnaire was administered to 254 respondents. Qualitative methods such as key informant interviews and Focus Group Discussions were used to collect additional information from participants. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. Thematic and content analysis was adopted for qualitative data. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents (78.2%) would receive EVD survivors back into the community. Majority of the female respondents (52.4%) compared to males (47.6%) reported that EVD survivors were discriminated, followed by males who mentioned that EVD survivors were stigmatized (52.6%). The biggest number of respondents (52.2% males and 47.8% females) had emergency contacts in case they saw signs of EVD. Majority of the community members had emergency contacts of a health worker followed by community leaders and radio contacts respectively. There were no significant relationships between possession of emergency contacts in case of EVD signs and gender. In conclusion, more women than men reported that EVD survivors were discriminated and stigmatized. This was probably because people in the community were not satisfied that survivors had completely recovered. It was however observed that more males (54%) than females had contacts or phone numbers of medical personnel to contact in case an EVD sign was noticed among community members. It is therefore important to have intervention programmes where community leaders are targeted in response to EVD outbreaks.
Key words: EVD, epidemic, emergency, community leaders and imported infections, Covid-19.
9:- E-Learning: Advancement in Nigerian Pedagogy Amid Covid-19 Pandemic
Oyeniran, Oluwashina A., Oyeniran, Stella T. , Oyeniyi, Joshua O., Ogundele, Rita A. , Ojo, Adeolu O
Abstract: Education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, values, and skills from one generation to another through institutions. A sound educational system is therefore prerequisite to achieving progress, from the individual to the society to the economy. Discontinuity in education is a threat to learning in Nigeria and the effect of repeated closures of schools and academic programs on students’ learning has adverse effects on the students, the parents and the nation as a whole. The ongoing discontinuity in education is caused by some global issues that affect almost every continents of the world and as a result led to total lockdown. This discontinuity in education was caused by COVID-19, a newly discovered coronavirus. But using emerging computer-based technology as a resource, students are encouraged to explore their own interests and to become active learners during the lockdown session. Hence, the efficacy of e-learning platforms that will foster continued learning cannot be ignored. Thus, this study proposed E-Learning as advancement in Nigerian pedagogy amid Covid-19 Pandemic lockdown by proposing a method that will put an end to discontinuity in education that emerged as a result of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. The proposed computer and android applications do not cost the lecturers and the students any more money than data subscription charges from their respective data network providers. Moreover, this framework also allows the institutional management to monitor these academic activities and allow the lecturers to upload the courseware and lecture notes to the E-learning zones and interact with the students while the students will also access the e-learning zones to attend their various classes as scheduled by the lecturers or as directed by the school management. Thus, the e-learning zone serves as the meeting point or lecture room for the students and the lecturers alike.
Keywords: COVID-19, Nigeria, E-Learning, Pedagogy
10:- A Review of Confirmed Cases, Deaths and Recovered of Novel Coronavirus (Covid-19) Based on Current Evidence: A Mini Review
Mohammad A. Al-kafaween, Hiba F. Al-Sayyed Nour A. Elsahoryi, Rania M. Al-Groom, Ibrahim M. Alshabatat
Abstract: In 31 December 2019, the WHO China Country Office was informed of cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China. As of 3 January 2020, a total of 44 patients with pneumonia of unknown etiology have been reported to World Health Organization (WHO) by the national authorities in China. Of the 44 cases reported, 11 are severely ill, while the remaining 33 patients were in stable condition. As the number of cases showing similar symptoms began to rise, the causative factor was eventually separated from samples. It was initially called the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and has been recently relabelled as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); the disease it causes has been named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Over the next few weeks, the virus spread from Wuhan to impact several areas in China and, after a few months, it is now present in 209 countries. Until second of May, 2020, there have been 3,472,040 confirmed cases globally, 244,107 deaths and 1,114,297 recovered have been registered. The WHO called COVID-19 a pandemic in March 11, 2020. Multiple drug trials are going on with some positive results. However, since no vaccine is available, the most reliable way to combat the virus is by preventive methods.
Keywords: COVID-19, Coronaviruses, Epidemiology, Managing COVID-19 Epidemic, confirmed cases
11:- Killing Coronavirus Before They Enter Human Body
Saddam Husain Dhobi, Suvesksha Karki
Abstract: The objective of this work is to kill coronavirus's presence in the atmosphere because they can survive in atmosphere form few hour to few days. Moreover, the medium of transmission of these virus is atmosphere. This type of killing is suitable in those areas or atmosphere where the density of coronavirus is higher and control spread of coronavirus in different places. In this work the UVs rays energy break the outer spike proteins structure of coronavirus, which play an important role to attached with human cells when it enters human body or human skin. UVs break because it carry the energy which break the glycoprotein from which spike is made up of.
Key Words: Glycoprotein, UVs Ray, Coronavirus, Spike Protein, Human Cells etc.
12:- Risk of COVID-19 for Household Waste Workers in Nepal
Tara Prasad Kharel
Abstract: The coronavirus is pandemic in the world and Nepal has also been in complete lock down condition from more than 1 month. The majority of waste workers in Nepal represent the poor economic individuals or the migrant employee from different parts of India. This study involved the comparative analysis of Solid Waste Management Act, Guidelines on Nepal with field observation of three different areas of Kathmandu Valley. The act, rules, guidelines has been analysed as secondary data sources and compared with field observation. The study identified the high risk of exposure of waste workers and waste picker towards coronavirus. The analysis further suspected the retransmission of the coronavirus to the community from waste workers/pickers to the community making it difficult to control. The study revealed the fact that there has been proper awareness of symptoms and mode of transmission among waste workers/pickers but due to unavailability of safety means, they are more vulnerable. This study established the fact that the Government’s priority to health sector alone cannot reduce the COVID-19 vulnerability if waste management sector is not prioritized equally.
Keywords: Waste Management, Waste workers, COVID-19, Coronavirus
All research will be published in a special issue in:
Publishing will be free of charge at all stages of manuscript preparation, and authors will be given a special certificate
This issue is supported by:
Middle East Industrial Services and Consulting (MEISC)
Paper Submission : email@example.com