Volume 2, Issue 3, 2021

1. Impacts of Brick Kilns on Surface Water around Kiln Areas

Mrinal Kanti Saha et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 3 (2021) 1–18


The study attempted to address the impact of brick kilns on surface water quality around the kiln areas. The samples were collected at twelve selected brick kiln clusters in Rajshahi and Gazipur Districts of Bangladesh. Several parameters were analyzed and compared with the prescribed permissible standards limit. The study results showed that the lowest concentration of DO in surface water was 1.0 mg/l in the Gazipur. The DO values of most of the surface water samples were found below the standard limit in both the study areas indicating water was not suitable for aquatic life. The color of water in surface water samples mostly exceeded the WHO permissible standard limit (15 pt-co). A few numbers of the water samples exceeded the standard turbidity limit (1-50 NTU) in Gazipur. The concentration of anions, including nitrate, nitrite, and fluoride varied from 5.9 to 68.4, 2.7 to 24.1, and 0.14 to 2.15 mg/l, respectively. The concentrations of Pb, Cr, Cd, and Fe ions were ranged from 0.1239 to 4.9528, 0.0015 to 3.9338, 0.009 to 0.095, and 0.154 to 3.012 mg/l, respectively, and the concentration of these cations exceeded the limits of the standards indicated the heavy metals pollutants in surface water bodies. The microbial water quality parameters, total coliform (TC), and fecal coliform (FC) were exceeded the permissible standard limit at all sampling locations indicating that the water was harmful to domestic purpose water uses. The study observed that the surface water around the brick kiln areas must harm human life and the environment.

Keywords: Brick kiln; impact; pollutants; surface water; water quality.

2. Some Mechanical Properties of Polyurehane Foams From Polyols and Castor Oil Blends

Moses Tara Langkuk et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 3 (2021) 19–25


Polyurethane (PU) foams—products that have many applications due to their unique advantages—are traditionally made from fossil-based polyols and isocyanates. Because of the problems associated with fossil resources such as expected depletion, environmental pollution, and global warming, biomass resources are being researched as sustainable, green and cost-effective alternatives. In this study, Castor oil (CO) is investigated as an alternative raw material for the production of flexible PU foams. One-short method of foam production was employed to produce flexible PU foams from blends of raw CO and petroleum-based polyols (conventional polyol, CP and polymer polyol, PP). The density, and some mechanical properties: Young modulus, elongation at break, tensile strength, and creep recovery of the foams produced were studied and compared with the properties of foams produced from pure polyols (i.e. 100% CP, 100% PP and 100% CO). The results obtained showed that the density (0.0161) and tensile strength (2.45) of the pure CO foam are the least but the creep recovery (48.34%) and elongation at break (89.95) are the highest, and that the density and the mechanical properties of the polyol/CO foams are largely affected by the quantity of CO, thus by varying the quantity of CO polyurethane foams having wide range of mechanical properties could be obtained.

Key Words: castor oil, mechanical properties, polyurethane foams, green manufacturing.

3. Poverty Reduction in Nigeria: The Role of Forestry Extension Services

Layade K.T et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 3 (2021) 26–33


Nigeria is visaged with the challenges of economic condition, population explosion, geological process and deforestation and wearing. it'd so, be very important to strengthen analysis and education in forest and forest product conservation to equip the general public and therefore the rural inhabitants adequately for survival. This review established that forestry extension services has nice impacts in forest product conservation within the destruction of economic condition. only a few papers examine the links between economic condition and therefore the use of forest resources. However, forestry extension coverage has been restricted among most economic condition Reduction Strategy Papers .The study stressed the importance of livelihoods contexts, as well as the roles of vulnerability, labour markets, and therefore the state, in deciding the agricultural poor’s ability to require advantage of typical extension ways.

The challenges of forest extension employees as known by this paper embody lack of skilled and social control capability, serious money crisis thanks to over dependence on central, lack of public understanding and support. The way forward among different things includes reinforcement of forestry extension services, restructuring of existing biological science skilled levels and strengthening of missing linkages across establishments required for forestry extension among others.

Keywords: Forest product, Forestry extension, improvishment/Poverty, forest protection.

4. Make the Educational Decisions Using the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making MCDM in the Light of the Corona Pandemic

Louay Flaieh Hasan et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 3 (2021) 34–41


In this paper, a multi-criteria decision-making approach is used to evaluate educational alternatives based on their priority criteria from the most important to the least, in this MCDM method, a number of alternatives are evaluated for a number of criteria in order to choose the best alternative(s). The main features of the proposed method compared to the AHP (analytical hierarchy process), which is one of the best-known decision-making processes when these decisions are complex, are:

(1) requires less data on comparison;

(2) It results in more consistent comparisons, which means that it generates more reliable results.

In this paper, Iraq was chosen as a place to explore possible educational alternatives by gathering qualitative data through personal interviews with educational leaders, and then evaluating them using the NVIVO program to obtain educational alternatives and criteria that impact those alternatives, and then entering those alternatives and criteria into the MCDM algorithm to sort the rank of those alternatives according to the priority.

Keywords: AHP, MCDM method, Educational Alternatives.

5. Evaluation effect of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Some Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria

Rusol, M. Albahrani et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 3 (2021) 42–45


The present review reports medicinal plant extracts history of using in traditional oriental therapies. Modern medicinal practice in many regions continues to rely on plant extracts for treatment ,plant extracts cheap , avaliable and little side efect than chemical substances ,in addition to many pathoenic fungi and bacteria became resistant for drugs therefore started to preapare aquoes and alcohols plant extract. Plant extacts uses as tea for many years due to their special benifit and nice texture. Natural compounds and biological activity normally found in plants. Medicinal plants need compounds against bacteria and fungi survive in their natural environments. Therefore, compounds as antifungal or antibacterial with more or less strong activities isolated from many medicinal plants and benifit in therapies.

Keywords: Modern medicinal practice, Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria.