Volume 2, Issue 4, 2021

1. Activation and Characterization of Major Porta Clay as Possible Edible Oil Bleaching Agent

Elkanah Micah Dawes et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 4 (2021) 1–8


In this study, the potential of major porta (MP) clay obtained from Major Porta village of Riyom Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria as an adsorptive bleaching agent was investigated. Various adsorbents were prepared from the MP clay by acid activation which was done by refluxing a given mass of MP clay with HCl solutions of varying concentrations ranging from 1 – 5 M at the boiling temperature of water (1000C) for 3 hours with constant stirring after which some physical and chemical properties of the activated MP clay samples were analyzed and compared with the properties of Fuller’s Earth, a Commercial bleaching earth (CBE). The compositions of the raw, activated and CBE clays were determined using AAS and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The effects of acid concentration, activation time, and temperature were investigated by bleaching studies. The result of compositional analyses showed that the alumina contents of 17.04 -23.03% and silica content of 50.32 – 70.03% were the major components of the CBE, raw and activated MP clays, with the clay activated with 1M HCl having composition and physical properties that are similar to the CBE. Acid concentration of 1M, 60 minutes and 373K were found to be the suitable acid concentration, contact time and temperature respectively for the production of an adsorbent that will compare favourably with CBE.

Key Words: activation, adsorptive bleaching, characterization, clay, oil.

2. Hynol Process for the Gasification of Microbial in Biomass for the Production of Methanol Fuel (CH4OH)

Edwin Osayuki Igbinosun et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 4 (2021) 9–19


The disintegrative reactivity of decomposed plants during gasification under the operating conditions of the Hynol process at 45 atm and 600 oC to gasify biomass to produce hydrogen rich gas which can be recycled from the synthesis of methanol. The Hynol Process is an economical process used for the production of methanol fuel which involve the conversion coal and natural gas from decomposed plants to liquid fuel. The process consists of three consecutive reaction operations (1) hydrogasification of biomass, (2) steam reforming of the methane formed and added natural gas feedstock, and (3) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps (catalytic methanol synthesis). During the process, H2 rich gas extracted after methanol synthesis is reused to aid the gasification of biomass in an energy neutral reactor to avoid the use of expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. This research focuses on the Hynol process, which is an economic production of methanol with reduced CO2 emission. The process uses biomass or other condensed carbonaceous materials together with natural gas as cofeedstocks to produce more methanol and less CO2 than the conventional processes. The Hynol process only involves the design and operation of reactor units which are commercially operable or have been demonstrated in large scale equipment. As discussed later, the Hynol process has a number of advantages over the conventional processes for methanol production.

Keywords: Gasification, hynol, methanol fuel, disintegration, biomass, endothermic reaction

3. The Impact of Portfolio Returns on Self-Attribution Scale,How Portfolio Returns are Affected an Investors Belief-in-skill

Zohaib Hassan et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 4 (2021) 20–27


The objective of this study is to identify the Self-attribution bias and investors belief-in-skill from their investment decisions. Examine the individual’s portfolio investment returns and its impact on the self-attribution bias (means by investor scoring). So, this bias is likewise reality considered in the finance and this study is motivating and supporting investors and also increasing the confidence level among different investors. Still at till date, it is not confirmed by any empirically test, that whether positive or negative returns of investors decisions are leading investors beliefs and skills strongly or not. This study is conducted at Rawalpindi and Islamabad sector. The primary data was used for analysis. The data was collected through structured questionnaire, this survey involves total sample of 214 questionnaires. SPSS 22.00 is used for analyses in which Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Result shows that there is a positive significant relationship among portfolio investment returns and investors self-attribution scale (use to measure the investors score). Which indicates that the better returns are shows their skills and previous experience of investment.

Keyword; self-attribution bias, consumer decision making, individual investment return.

4. Preliminary study on consumption of edible insects among Government workers in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria

Akinkunmi, Olukemi Yetunde et al / International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 4 (2021) 28–32


The preliminary study was carried out to examine awareness and acceptance of consumption of edible insects among government workers in Ibadan, Oyo State. A well-structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information from ninety-five respondents using a simple random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that 52.60% of the respondents were female. Majority of the respondents were within the age range of 30 and 39 years (44.20%), married (84.20%) and had tertiary education (93.70%). Seven edible insects were found to be consumed by the respondents. Chi-square result showed that sex, age and marital status of the respondents had a significant relationship with whether they are willing to consume edible insects or not. The study thus recommends that awareness about consumption of edible insects should be strengthened.

Keywords: consume, willingness, insects, edible

5.The Place of an Ethicist in a Nigerian Democratic State

Frances Amaka Akpudo /International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 4 (2021) 33-49


Democracies are attempting to engage ethicists in order to aid solve moral issues. This seems like an entirely logical step, if ethicists encompass a set of skills that can facilitate explaining moral issues, then there is no comprehensible reason why this should not be done. Also, the fast varying globalized world is offering novel and complex issues that democracies need to solve. This presents a number of questions: what is the preeminent way to engage ethicists? What is their place in a democratic state? Do ethicists have the skills that can aid democracies? This paper will attempt to answer these questions. The focal question being: What is the place of an ethicist in a Nigerian democratic state? Ethicists today provide many different functions, in ethics committees, as academics in university and as social or political analysts, to name a few. This paper is meant to examine probable placements and verify which would make the greatest contribution to the Nigerian democratic state. The conclusion is generally that ethicists should take an educational place in the Nigerian democratic state. This is to say that they must concentrate on passing on the ethical skills they have gained as a way of propping up the budding of ethical skills among the population of a democracy. This is mostly based on the work of John Dewey, who argued that education was basic part of society, one that ought not to be disregarded.

Keywords: Ethicist; Nigerian Democratic State; Placement

6. Numerical Study of Double Pipe heat Exchanger Using Hybrid Nano Fluid

Mawj K. Qasim et al /International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 4 (2021) 50-62


In the present study, two types of hybrid Nanofluid were used to enhancement heat transfer in heat exchanger and comparison between them. Al2O3-Fe2O3/water hybrid Nanofluid and Al2O3-CuO/water hybrid Nano fluid were examined numerically in double pipe heat exchanger . The flow rates of hybrid Nanofluid ranging between (3 -7) Lpm at temperature of 25°C in an external tube while there was a hot water at a temperature of 60°C and a flow rate ranged between (3 – 5) Lpm running in the central tube. The volume concentration of two hybrid nanofluids is 0.3% . The ratio of two hybrid Nanofluids are 0.5:0.5. The numerical study showed that with the rate of heat transfer increases when adding nanoparticles to the base fluid , but on the other hand, the skin friction coefficient and pressure drop increases when adding nanoparticles.

Keywords: hybrid Nanofluid, double pipe heat exchanger, Heat Transfer Coefficient, Nusselt Number.

7. Isolation of Endogenous Fungal Isolate Producing Extracellular Lipase with Potential in Olive Oil Hydrolysis

Mahar Faisel Mahmmoud Al-shawawreh /International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology Vol 2 No 4 (2021) 63-84


In order to establish a successful process of enzymatic hydrolysis of olive oil, the following objectives have been designated: Screening for potential fungal strain producing a significant amount of extracellular lipase from indigenous soil samples and application of the crude lipase preparation in olive oil hydrolysis. Twenty-three fungal strains producing extracellular lipase were isolated from indigenous soil samples on PDA plates. The extracellular crude lipase produced by the MR11(1) fungal strain identified as Rhizopus species was used in olive oil hydrolysis experiments.

Maximum hydrolysis degree of olive oil of 98.8% was achieved after 24 hours’ hydrolysis when 1:6 ratios (v/v) non-aqueous to aqueous phase reaction was operated at 30-40 C and 500 rpm stirring speed. The optimum concentration of enzyme in the aqueous phase was found to be 140 U crude enzyme per gram olive oil adjusted to pH 7.0 using phosphate buffer and the optimum non-aqueous phase contained 1.0 g of olive oil. Increment in oil content resulted in less hydrolysis degree and longer time reaction. However, the results showed that addition of different hydrophobic organic solvents (0.5 mL/ g olive oil) to the non-aqueous phase reduced the hydrolysis degree even though when added to the assay mixture enhanced the enzyme activity. Further study of the crude lipase from MR11(1) isolate including enzyme characterization and production optimization were recommended.

Key words: Isolation, Fungal, Hydrolysis, Olive oil.