Volume 1, Issue 12, 2020

  1. Existence and Uniqueness Solution of Ordinary Differential Equation of Electroencephalography Signals During an Epileptic Seizure


An electroencephalography (commonly referred to by its abbreviation EEG) is one of the main diagnostic examinations for epilepsy. It can also play an essential role in diagnosing other brain disorders. In addition, the results of EEG as a tool for diagnostic seizure is often interpreted as a noise rather than an ordered pattern. Mathematical modelling of EEG signals of epileptic seizures provides a challenge as seizure data of patients is irregular, often with no visible trend. EEG signals during the seizure can be described as a dynamical system modelling which is represented by its motion. Furthermore, this representation can be modelled as ordinary differential equation (ODE). In this paper, we will utilize from some existing results to confirm that the solution of ODE for EEG signals during seizure is exist and unique.

Keywords: Epileptic seizure, EEG signals, ODE.

2. Saving Behaviour Pattern of Undergraduate Students in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka


This study investigated whether financial literacy, parents’ social background and saving method had significant influence on the saving behaviour of undergraduate students in Nigeria. The population consisted of all first, second, third and final year undergraduate students of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN). The sample for this study was made up of 700 undergraduate students of the UNN and was selected using the simple random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire titled: Analysis of Saving Behaviour Pattern of Undergraduate Students in Nigeria was the only instrument used for the study. Multiple regression and simple percentages were used to answer the research questions raised for the study. Result of the relationship between the seven independent variables (financial literacy, FL) of the undergraduate students of UNN and their saving behaviour revealed that while FLrec (ß= 0.661, p<0.05), FLbud (ß= -0.607, p<0.05), FLmgt (ß= 0.472, p< 0.05) and FLcCard (ß= -0.864, p<0.05) were significant with saving behaviour, FLinvest (ß= 0.129, p>0.05), FLinstru (ß= 0.280, p>0.05) and FLneed (ß= 0.280, p>0.05) were not. Result of the four (4) independent variables responsible for parents’ social class showed that while pSclass (ß= 1.051, p<0.05) and pOccup (ß= 1.159, p<0.05) were significantly related to the saving behaviour of the undergraduate students of UNN, pEdu (ß= 0.190, p>0.05) and pAccom (ß= -0.545, p>0.05) were not significant. Finally, result revealed that 496(71%) undergraduate students of the UNN saved their semester allowance using the bank. It is recommended therefore that the government, the apex bank of Nigeria (CBN), curriculum planners and other stakeholders of education should ensure that they introduce financial literacy into the secondary school curriculum. Moreover, catching a child young (irrespective of age) in the area of saving behaviour and saving culture should be encouraged.

Keywords: Saving behaviour, undergraduate students of UNN, dependent variable and independent variables.

3. The Content Validity of University Tertiary Matriculation Examination Economics Items from 2014 to 2018 in Nigeria


The study investigated the weight in percentage of the University Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) economics questions on the topic areas by objective levels covered in the UTME economics syllabus from 2014 to 2018. The research design adopted for this study was the descriptive survey. This is because the study was only interested in describing the content validity of the UTME economics items and the UTME economics syllabus by the objective levels from 2014 to 2018. The population of the study comprised the UTME economics syllabus and the UTME economics past questions from 2014 to 2018. Purposive sampling technique was used to select adequately all the 23 topics of the UTME economics syllabus and the UTME economics past questions from 2014 to 2018. The instruments titled “UTME Economics Syllabus from 2014 to 2018” and “UTME Economics Past Questions from 2014 to 2018” were used to collect data for the study. These were the adopted versions of the UTME economics past questions, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 which contained 50, 50, 50, 40 and 40 items respectively and their corresponding UTME economics syllabus. Data collected were subjected to appropriate descriptive statistics using simple percentages. This study however revealed that economics UTME of 2014 (26 items out of 49 instead of 50 or 55.04% as question 1 was not drawn from any of the topics contained in the syllabus), 2015 (26 questions out of 50 or 52%), 2016 (32 items out of 50 or 64%), 2017 (20 items out 0f 40 or 50%) and 2018 (19 questions out of 40 or 47.5%) had content validity. Result also indicated that the UTME economics questions of 2014 (having 22 items out of 50 or 44.88% as question 1 was abstract and not drawn from any of the topics contained in the syllabus), 2015 (24 questions out of 50 or 48%), 2016 (18 items out of 50 or 36%), 2017 (20 questions out of 40 or 50%) and, 2018 (21 questions out of 40 or 52.5%) had no content validity. The study concluded that while some topics in the UTME economics 2014 to 2015 attracted more questions than others, some had no questions set from them.

Keywords: UTME economics questions 2014 to 2018, UTME economics syllabus 2014 to 2018 and content validity.

4. A Public Universities Administration in Nigeria: Challenges and the ways forward


This article discussed the problems facing the universities administration in Nigeria. Secondary data was used to support the points raised in the article. The secondary data were sourced from print materials and online publications by recognized institutions and individual author. There are many problems hindering smooth administration of Nigerian public universities. Some of the problems include; inadequate funding, inadequate academic staff, inadequate infrastructural facilities, brain-drain, incessant strike actions by the universities unions, institutional corruption, insecurity problems, weak administrators and poor capacity development of academic staff , political interference in the universities administration, indiscriminate issuance of licenses for establishing new universities, universities autonomy dilemma, poor Internally Generated Revenue (IGR) among others. To solve these challenges, this article recommends: that the government should increase the funding universities, employ of more academic staff, provide adequate infrastructural facilities, implement all agreement with unions, ensure effective staff development programme and effective motivation policy.

Keywords: Administration, Administrators, Challenges, Education.



In this study, two iterative methods, to obtain the numerical solutions of nonlinear equations have been constructed. In order to demonstrate that our methods converge in eighth and twelfth orders, an analytical proof has been established. Compared to some recent methods, our schemes have higher efficiency indexes. Numerical examples are provided to show the performance of the presented methods. Moreover, the theoretical order of convergence in the numerical work has been verified.

Keywords: Nonlinear equation; Iterative method; Convergence order.

6. Copyright and Related Rights in Bangladesh: The Laws and the Reality


Copyright, one of the well-known branches of the Intellectual Property (IP) Rights, has got its recognition in international arena through Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, 1886. With some other conventions and treaties it got a wide attention as well as distinct dimension through the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights of 1994 (TRIPS Agreement). Unlike other jurisdiction of the world the significance of IP and its role, inter alia, in scientific and technological progress, economic growth and literary, artistic and cultural creativity is recognized in Bangladesh. The government, therefore, attaches much importance to the need of IP protection in the country. Bangladesh has an active endeavor for enriching her copyright system. World Trade Organization (WTO), World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) extend their cooperation to Bangladesh for an effective and sustainable copyright system. Copyright and related rights are subject-matters of IP and these require statutory protection. Bangladesh has legal and institutional arrangement for the protection and administration of copyright and related rights in compliance with international instruments specially the TRIPS Agreement. Despite having laws and institutional framework there are frequent incidents of violation of copyright and tendency of showing ultimate disregard to the laws and the authority of the concern department. Lack of proper steps from the end of the authority as to the implementation of copyright laws is also condemned. In this respect, the main objectives of this paper are to understand the major provisions and safeguards stipulated in the laws and to identify potential problems prevails in reality in Bangladesh and likely solutions of these problems.

Keywords: Copyright, IP, piracy, WIPO, TRIPS Agreement, Bangladesh.

7. Capitalisation Requirement for Regulating FDI in Bangladesh: Potential Risks and Regulations


The multinational enterprises (MNEs) have a common intention to maximising their capital investment to gain more profit. In doing so, sometimes they behave irresponsibly towards the host countries, even do not hesitate to bypass the laws of the country. In relation to capitalisation requirements for foreign investors, the host country like Bangladesh may have specific laws or policies; but due to desire to attract more FDI and pressure from the MNEs, the government may be reluctant to impose various requirements or refrain from enforcing them. This paper will discuss the negative impact of FDI in Bangladesh due to lack of capitalisation requirement provision, and then will highlight the significance of enacting it into the FDI laws. This paper will address one major question: why the foreign investors should be required to fulfil capitalisation requirement during the entry of FDI in Bangladesh? In this study, six respondents were interviewed for expert opinions. Findings of this study show that existing laws and policies of Bangladesh significantly lacks capitalisation requirements provision. In this relation, recommendations have been provided for consideration by the government.

Keywords: Capitalisation requirement, foreign direct investment, Bangladesh, multinational enterprises, regulation.