Volume 2, Issue 7, 2021

1. Fundamental Policies for Industrialization, Manpower and Sustainable Development in Nigeria


This paper examines the history of other developed nations in achieving rapid industrialization, explains the scientific processes involved in achieving rapid industrialization, as well as developing policies that aids productivity and sustainable development in Nigeria. The paper also provides useful suggestion and recommendations on how to industrialize Nigeria. The paper adopts descriptive and scientific method of analysis to examine the most effective policies for industrializing Nigeria. The data used in this study is mainly that of secondary data. In conclusion, seven policy statements where formulated, alongside their objectives and strategies to be applied to attain industrialization. The study emphasizes manpower development as the principal learning tool for promoting improved productivity and sustainable development. The study also highlighted learning: proper education and training on how to manufacture products as a catalyst for promoting industrialization, productivity and create job opportunities.

Keywords: Policy, Industrialization, Technological Learning, Manpower and Sustainable Development.



The study identifies the practice of co-curricular activities in school and how this can be strengthened. The main purpose of this study was to find out what type of co-curricular activities were being practiced in the school and what roles were being played by the school’s Head teacher, Assistant teachers, URC Instructor and Supervisor for conducting the co-curricular activities. Bangladesh has pursed different types of policy and intervention to provide access to quality primary education. Co-curricular activities are one of the important interventions to achieve quality education but it is less emphasized. A qualitative research approach was chosen to conduct the study as it is a precise procedure for data collection methods, analysis, and reporting. Key findings from the analysis are that the scenario of practicing co-curricular activities in government primary schools in rural Bangladesh is not satisfactory. There are some indications of practicing such activities in the curriculum but the time allocation for implementing the process is not enough. Only Thursday is allocated for practicing the co-curricular activities in a week for one hour. The number of teachers is also limited and they have no training about how to practice the co-curricular activities in school. The role of Head teacher, Assistant teacher, Supervisor, and URC Instructor is limited. The class size is large so that in-class practice of co-curricular activities is difficult. Playgrounds of the studied schools are small that is why all students cannot take part in co-curricular activities at the same time which creates discrimination among them. Community and SMC are very helpful to organize co-curricular activities in school at large scale.

Keywords: co-curricular activities, curriculum, joyful learning, quality education, learning environment, Curriculum Framework, Multiple Intelligence

3. The Security Challenges of the “One Belt, One Road” Initiative: Conflict Prevention and stability Operations


Based on ancient Silk Road essence, the initiative of jointly building the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road widely termed as the One Belt and One Road (OBOR). This would reinforce China’s importance as an economic partner for its neighbors and enrich China’s diplomatic influence in the region. The OBOR initiative by improving infrastructure may contribute to economic development in neighboring countries and in Africa but present also risks in terms of unfair economic competition and increased Chinese domination. The EU has actively invested to ensure its own energy supply security as well as to enhance its influence in Central Asia. For focusing on connectivity and partnerships with neighboring countries, multilateral mechanisms have to be built. Furthermore, China’s behaviour in the South China Sea and denial of the ruling of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, in July 2016, put the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) at risk with possible consequences to freedom of the seas. In order to overcome this uncertainty, China should use its growing strength to encourage its neighbors to defer disputes and follow joint development. Regional powers are cautious of China’s rise. In order to overcome this uncertainty, China should use its growing strength to encourage its neighbors to defer disputes and follow joint development. It is doubted that smaller countries may not be granted along with its mammoth project.

Keywords: “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) initiative, security cooperation, China’s perspective, security challenges.