Volume 3, Issue 1, 2022

1. An overview of Climate change effects and adaptation strategies on agricultural production in Nigeria


Climate change has been threatening the global agricultural production and food security in Nigeria and other vulnerable regions of the world. Climate Change is caused by the release of billions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other heat trapping gases known as Green House Gases into the atmosphere. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production, changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding warmer or cooler temperature which leads to changes in the length of season, changes in food prices and food supply in the market. To address the food requirements of developing countries in general and Nigeria in particular, there is need to address land degradation and other ecological challenges amongst which is global climate change. Nigeria is one of the world’s most densely populated countries with a population of 180 million people, more than half of which are considered to be in abject poverty. Addressing climate change issues and promote sustainability in agricultural sector and the environment requires tangible progress on implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies of climate change in the agricultural sector. This paper reviews on literature on the various efforts to combat, mitigate and suggest the strategies for the adaptation of the effects of climate change on agricultural production.

Keywords: Adaptation, climate change, implications, agriculture

2. An investigation of driving factors to engage in the informal sector: A Case study of some selected towns of Afar regional state, Ethiopia


This study intends to investigate the situation of informal sector operators with particular emphasis on the main driving factors to engage in the sector. The study is based on a field survey of 90 informal sector operators by using a multi-stage sampling method to draw samples from major towns of the Afar region (Logiya and Asayita). Data is gathered in the year 2017 from these sample informants Employing cross-sectional quantitative research; primary. A structured questionnaire is used as a method of acquiring information which was finally analyzed using a descriptive method of analysis to account for the issues under study. The findings of the study revealed that self-sufficiency, a combination of multiple factors, and poverty are witnessed to be the major drive to engage in the informal sector. The study further identified that informal sector operators confronted many challenges which include lack of working capital, multiple challenges, lack of working space, sexual abuse, the seasonal fluctuation in demand of commodities, loss of materials, household chores, competition, and lack of business knowledge. Taking this into account, reducing informal employment by lowering the cost of transitions to formality through the creation of an enabling policy and regulatory environment is needed. For this, protecting workers’ rights and increasing the benefits of being formal by promoting greater awareness of the advantages and protection that come with formalization (business development services, access to the market, productive resources, credit programs, and training and promotional programs to upgrade informal economy units ) is needed.

Keywords: Keywords: Informal sector, driving factors, formal sector.

3. Powdery mildew of Tomato and its management: A Review


Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important crop grown throughout the world. This crop is attacked by many pathogens. Among them fungal pathogens are important limiting factor in the yield and quality of the crop. This paper aims to review tomato powdery mildew diseases symptoms, causal pathogens, favorable conditions for disease development and their management.

Keywords: Powdery mildew, tomato, yield losses.

4. Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement using Nano-Fluids with Ethylene-Glycol Base Fluid and Micro Finned Surface


This project aims to study the effect of working fluid and simultaneous surface modification and heat transmission in a pool boiling in microsystems which have enabled different electronic gadgets to boost their processing capability while simultaneously shrinking in size. The study used nanofluids with different concentrations, which was Ethylene glycol as a base fluid and use numerical investigation in this work and it was focused on the thermal performance of nanofluids (Ethylene glycol+Al2O3 and Ethylene glycol +CUO nanofluids) with different concentrations (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 1) % by volume, during the boiling condition with different fins shape surfaces. 2D geometry for steady viscous incompressible flow by forced convection heat transfer was considered with different fins shape (circular, triangular and square fins). The use of nanofluids was to improve the heat transfer coefficient and thus save energy and reduce the economic cost. The best results were obtained for surfaces with circular fins with a ratio of 181%, with CUO+C2H6O2 nanofluids at a concentration of 0.3% by volume, but on surfaces with square fins, the results are negative with both types of nanofluids.

Keywords: Ethylene glycol, CUO, Al2O3, Nanofluid, Heat transfer, Boiling, Micro-fins.



Pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo) are valuable sources of nutrients for human consumption with a capacity to enhance food security. However, is limited information on pumpkin diversity in Uganda that is currently hindering its full utilization. This study, therefore, evaluated the diversity of pumpkins in Uganda using simple sequence repeats molecular and morphological markers. Correlation of morphology and genetic data was also evaluated. The 66 pumpkin samples collected from the districts of Arua, Mbale, Mubende and Kabale were evaluated using 16 morphological traits and 10 microsatellite markers. Morphologically the pumpkins showed high diversity and were ranked into three clusters. The SSR markers detected high genetic diversity with an average percentage polymorphism of 79.47%. Significant variation of pumpkin varieties within the district was revealed. The pumpkins were genetically ranked into six clusters. Limited correlation between morphological and molecular data among pumpkins varieties was revealed. This indicates that for pumpkins morphological and microsatellites data cannot be used interchangeably.

Keywords: diversity, simple sequence repeats, morphological markers, correlation, polymorphism